Account for the spread of Islam from its beginnings to c.660AD
Islam is a monotheistic religion founded around 615AD by Mohammed. In its early days, many people rejected it, but now it is the fastest-growing religion in the world. Exploring the reason for its rapid spread, we look at its roots and early rulers, particularly its founder, Mohammed.
Mohammed was born in Mecca in 570AD. His father died before he was born and was orphaned at the age of six following his mother’s death. After she died, Mohammed went to live with his grandfather and later with his uncle, Abu Talib. He worked as a shepherd for his uncle and eventually became a camel driver for him. By age twenty-five, Mohammed had developed a reputation for practical wisdom well beyond average. This wisdom brought him many people for advice with financial and religious problems. One of these was a rich young widow named Khadijah. She was so impressed by his wisdom that she proposed to him. Realizing that her financial and social standing meant he need no longer work and would be able to concentrate his time and efforts on his religious studies, Mohammed accepted her proposal and they married in 596AD.
Free from want, Mohammed spent much of his time in the desert near Mecca, meditating. Dissatisfied with the polytheistic religions of the time, he began consulting many Jews and Christians about their religions. These people had imperfect knowledge of the Bible, and Mohammed incorrectly learned that the Trinity was comprised of God the Father, Jesus Christ, and Mary, rather than of God the Father, Jesus Christ, and The Holy Spirit. This incorrect teaching turned Mohammed away from Christianity and Judaism altogether, and he continued searching and meditating. On one meditation trip to Mount Hira, near Mecca, during the month of Ramadan, Mohammed had a revelation from God. The Archangel Gabriel reportedly appeared to Mohammed telling him that he was to be the mouthpiece of God - to...
...angel Gabriel who brought revelations, or revealed teaching, from. Gabriel told Muhammad, "You are the messenger of God."
According to Islamic tradition, at first MUhammad feared that he might be going mad. But Khadijah consoled Muhammad and expressed her faith that God had chosen him as a prophet to spread his words to the people. Khadijah became the first convert to Islam.
Islam is based on monotheism, or the belief in a singleGod. This God, Muhammad taught, was the same God of Abraham, Moses, and jesus. Through Gabriel, God told Muhammad to teach other to practice compassion, honesty, and justice.
According to Muslim tradition, the angel Gabriel continued to reveal messages over the next 22 years. At first, Muhammad confided these messages only to family and friend, including his cousinly and a close friend, Abu Bak'r. Gradually, a small group of followers developed at Makkah. They were called Muslims, which means "those who surrender to God." For Muslims, Islam was a way of life and the basis for creating a just society. For example, at the time women had few rights. Muslims granted more rights to women and ensured their equality before God.
Though Muhammad apparently could neither read nor write, he said that the messages from Gabriel were imprinted on his mind and heart. His followers also memorized them. Eventually, some followers wrote down these words and collected them in...
Spread of Islam
Spread of IslamIslam is not only one of the three major monotheistic religions in the world today, it is also it is the fastest growing. Additionally, political conflict between Islamic groups and the West play out on the international stage like the latest of the Crusades. The message of the Prophet Mohammad has been distorted and misunderstood by those outside of Islam who see only a religion of hatred. Islam did, however, emerge in battle, conquering by force much of the Middle East and North Africa. The rapid spread of Islam, both politically and as a religion, is remarkable. It is therefore fundamental to understand Islam on its own terms, its creation and spreadfrom the Arabian Peninsula in the Seventh century.
Esposito (1999) notes that although it was “distant” from the centers of power in the Near East, “Arabia was not isolated” (p. 4). The people who lived there were "aware of and affected by political, economic, and cultural developments” that surrounded them, including religion (p. 4). Christianity, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism were the main religions, in addition to “local animist cults” (p. 4). Mecca, where Mohammad first experienced Allah, was “unmistakably a pagan milieu” that had only...
The spread of Islam began when, around 613 CE, the Islamic prophet Muhammad began to share the revelation which God had, according to Muslims, started to give to him three years previously. During the rest of his life, the Muslim ummah was established in Arabia. The expansion of the Arab Empire in the years following Muhammad's death led to the creation of caliphates, occupying a vast geographical area and conversion to Islam was boosted by missionary activities particularly those of Sufis, who easily intermingled with local populace to propagate the religious teachings. These early caliphates, coupled with Muslim economics and trading and the later expansion of the Ottoman Empire, resulted in Islam's spread outwards from Mecca towards both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the creation of the Muslim world. Trading played an important role in the spread of Islam in several parts of the world, notably southeast Asia.
Muslim dynasties were soon established and subsequent empires such as those of the Abbasids, Fatimids, Almoravids, Seljukids, Ajuuraan, Adal and Warsangali in Somalia, Mughals in India and Safavids in Persia and Ottomans were among the largest and most powerful in the world. The people of the Islamic world created numerous sophisticated centers of culture and science with far-reaching mercantile networks, travelers, scientists, hunters, mathematicians,...
...6.1 Outline – pg. 120-126
- Islam was the first global civilization taking its roots in the Arabian Peninsula
- It was spread by merchants, wandering mystics, and warriors across Africa, Asia, and Southern Europe
- After its birth in the 7th century, Islamic civilization provided key links and channels for exchange among Mediterranean, Asian, and African cultures
- Muslim works of philosophy, literature, mathematics, and the sciences elevated the Arabic language to the language of the educated and wise
Desert and Town: The Arabian World and the Birth of Islam
- Much of the Arabian Peninsula is covered with inhospitable desert
- Bedouin, nomadic cultures developed based on camel or goat herding
- Agriculture and the size of towns were limited
- Mecca and Medina were two key towns
Clan Identity, Clan Rivalries, and the Cycle of Vengeance
- Social organization fit nomadic lifestyles
- Bedouins lived in kin-related clan groups in highly mobile tent encampments
- These clans being organized into larger tribal groupings
- Survival depended on cooperation and efficiency of clan member
- There were wide ranges of wealth and status within the clan groups and between clans of the same tribe
- Rivalries between clans to control oases or fertile land kept clans closely knit
- Revenge or grudges would remain for hundreds of years in repeating feuds
Towns and Long-Distance Trade
- Small communities in the...
...The Spread of IslamIslam started to spread when Prophet Muhammad received his first revelation at forty years of age when Angel Gabriel gave him the message from god. Prophet Muhammad first started preaching about Islam to his wife and closets friends in secret for three years. Later he started preaching openly in Mecca ten years and in Medina for ten years. Islam only really started spreading when Prophet Muhammad died. It was the four caliphs that were really determined to spreadIslam around the world.
The military also helped to spreadIslam around the world because when the Muslims fought in wars the had Rules of Conduct that they had to follow like how they cannot kill old people, girls and women. Also they were not allowed to poison water, kill animals, chop down trees and burn houses of god like temples. Those people who surrender against Islam became hostages and their families had to pay to set them free. If their families didn’t have money to pay then they would have to negotiate with their skills for example, the hostage is handy with medicine then he would have to help the hospital to heal the wounded for a certain number of years maybe five or six. Once they finish the five or six years then they are free to go. Then once the hostage is free some of them convert to Islam...
...didn’t actually realize that there were other religions until I became old enough to have an understanding. And even still, I truly did not realize the enormity of other belief systems, like Judaism and Islam; until learning Global Studies last year. The nation of Islam contains 1.61 billion followers (known as Muslims). This makes Islam the second largest religion Europe and in the world, following Christianity. However, as with anything else, this did not all just suddenly occur. The spread of Islam began in 652 A.D., and the religion still is growing and growing.
The religion of Islam began in the seventh-century A.D., by the prophet Muhammad. The Muslims call this time period before Islam ‘Jahiliyya’, or ‘The Age of Ignorance.’ This was because the people living in Arabia at the time were mostly polytheistic and seen as immoral. Muhammad’s birth town of Mecca was an important place in the world at this time, as it was at the crossroads of the caravan routes in the Middle East. The word ‘mecca’ means “A place that is regarded as the center of an activity or interest", and it certainly was the case in Mecca. Mecca was a wealthy and extremely important trading site, because the area around Mecca was completely barren. What will become extremely important in the spread of Islam in Europe is that Mecca is a trading center, where everyone who...
...In 570 AD a man to be by the Islamic people as the last prophet was born into the world; his name was Muhammad. Muhammad was born into a poor family in Mecca, but spent most of his childhood being raised by Bedouin relatives in a different town after he was orphaned at the age of six. His uncle Abu Talib brought him under his wing and taught him to be a successful merchant. When Muhammad was about twenty years old he moved into Mecca and began trading for widow named Khadijah. Through the next five years Khadijah became aware of how reliable and resourceful Muhammad was and proposed marriage to him when he was twenty-five. Through his travels Muhammad became very aware of the clan rivalries and the undermining forces among the tribes. He soon became distracted and unsatisfied with his life. In 610 he retreated to a cave above Mecca to meditate and fast. While he was there the angel Gabriel appeared to him and gave him a message from God, “There is no god but Allah.”
Muhammad began teaching his revelations form God. His first group of disciples consisted of his wife, his servants, and just a few of his clan’s people. His first followers called themselves Muslims. As he taught his circle grew and he became a threat to other wealthy Meccans, the worshiping of the gods of their fathers, and the sacred Ka’ba. In 622 After severe persecution, Muhammad and his followers fled to Medina. The flight to Medina marks year one of the Islamic...
...The Spread of IslamIslamspread throughout the Middle East, Northern Africa, and parts of Spain within 140 years of the religion’s birth. The religion of Islam grew from its birthplace, Mount Hira near Mecca, to expand into a large empire in the fraction of the time as Rome. Islamspread quickly for a few reasons; such as military conquest, trade routes, and its appealing moral and political order.
One reason why Islamspread so rapidly was through Jihad, or holy war, only ordered by the Caliph. The Caliph was the ruler of the Muslim Empire. By 750 CE the Islamic Empire had grown, from what is today Western Saudi Arabia in 632 CE, to spread across Northern Africa into Spain. It covered the Arabian Peninsula, and it spread east to modern day Afghanistan. (Doc C) A major breakthrough for the Islamic spread came during the ghazus, “[raids against other tribes]”. The ghazus were non-religious attacks aimed to plunder neighboring areas. The Muslims lived in areas lacking in resources. To compensate they stole from the surrounding areas. (Doc D) Between 632 CE and 661 CE the Muslims attacked and raided areas in the Byzantine and Persian Empires. Both had been involved in constant war, and the Muslims encountered a power vacuum. The Muslims filled this void which caused...