After WW2, Australia felt that the population was too small to defend itself in case of another event. It also felt that Australia needed an economic boost and an increase in the population was the way to do so. In a speech to parliament in 1944, Immigration Minister Arthur Calwell expresses the need for migrants; “…Only by filling this land can we establish a title to hold it” (House of Representatives, Debates, 1944, vol. HR177, p.935). The Chifley Labor government’s aim in the late 1940s was to attract British migrants to Australia with free passage or “assisted migration”. So the government used advertisements to go after the British in the 1950’s by using positive images such as “sunshine and smiles” to attract more citizens. The idea of owning your own home and living in a laid-back, liberal community appealed to some and so the government assisted the migrants in coming to Australia by providing them with accommodation, work and support. Yet the propaganda of “sunshine, salesmen and subsidies...” did not attract the numbers of British migrants needed to achieve the goals set, and so the Australian government broadened its migration policy to other areas of Europe. Australia began a policy to attract migrants from Europe, in particular from Greece and Italy and the Baltic States – since many of these people wanted to start of a fresh new life after the devastation that WW2 had caused. The Australian governments saw this as an advantage as many of these people could pass as British and were a big boost to Australia’s workforce. With a preference for “British-looking people”, all immigrants were tested as to whether they were appropriate to come to Australia. Immigrants were examined to assure they were fair skinned, physically attractive, fit and healthy- otherwise they would be sent back to their original country. Insert evidence here The non-British migrants were known as ‘new Australians’ to show that they would become Australian. The government thought...
...From 1945 to the year 2000, we saw many changingpatterns of migration undertake across all nations for various reasons. A series of events in Australia’s history have lead up to the change in migrationpatterns. From the middle of the nineteenth century, Australia was a destination for migrants. From 1945, 6.8 million people came to Australia as new settlers. The controversy surrounding the early migration is said to be the introduction of the ‘White Australia’ policy which was one of the first legislative actions of the new Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.
The effect of this policy was to reduce the extent of non-European migration so that by 1947, when the post-war immigration policy was being initiated, the Asian component of Australia’s population was estimated to be less than 0.4 per cent of the total. However, not until 1967, when the policy had soon been changed to allow the entry of skilled non-Europeans, was there any significant growth. With Australia abandoning the White Australia Policy it has opened the door for countries such as Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Malaysia and Indonesia to come to Australia. From the year 1945 to 1949, Ben Chifley took the position the Australian Prime Minister. He established the...
...Australian Parliament Joint Standing Committee on Migration Submission No. 3
MULTICULTURALISM AND THE BENEFITS OF MIGRATION IN AUSTRALIA
Committee Secretary, Joint Standing Committee on Migration House of Representatives, Parliament House, Canberra ACT 2600
28 February, 2011
The beginnings of white migration and multiculturalism in Australia saw our British forefathers arriving in boats on the shores of the “land down under”. Boat loads of prisoners – reluctant migrants - from an overflowing British penal system were brought to Australia to be used for punishment and labour, and settlements were established in and around places and rivers that had been home to the original aboriginal inhabitants for 40,000 – 60,000 years as bases to search for land-holdings. The new arrivals had no comprehension of the original inhabitants’ deep spiritual connection with the land around them, or of their prodigious knowledge of climatology, botany, astronomy, hydrology, ecology, zoology, mythology, ornithology, to name a very few. Without this knowledge of the complexity of aboriginal kinship structures, strict laws, the dreaming and the differences between the hundreds of societies on the mainland and in Tasmania, the aboriginals’ ancient customs and knowledge were not acknowledged and certainly not respected or seen as a possible source of...
...was the mass migrations of many Vietnamese people to Australia. According to Ashley Carruthers (2008), the only Vietnamese to previously arrive in Australia were generally tertiary students, wives of Australian soldiers or orphans from the war. Following the 1975 surrender of South Vietnam however, the Vietnamese were forced to flee their homes in a desperate attempt to escape the newly-communist rule of the North. Due to the economic prosperity ofAustralia and the close ties it had with South Vietnam, many refugees migrated to the country, according to Jack & Templeton (1994). This led to what is now a thriving Vietnamese culture throughout Australia, although previously many Vietnamese had struggled to integrate into the Australian culture.
It will be argued that after fleeing the privation of their newly-communist homeland as a result of the war, the Vietnamese masses were welcomed onto Australian shores only to later endure the Australian Public’s racism. It will also be reasoned that this racism however, has dwindled over time due to the ever-growing multicultural attitude adopted by the nation.
The spread of communism was a constant threat during the Cold War and a major catalyst for the military conflict between the communist North Vietnam and the republic South. Nicolas Brasch (2008, p.28) indicates that the USA Government sent military forces to South Vietnam to protect it...
1. Explain the similarities between non-current assets and current assets? (3 marks)
Acquired by a business to gain profit or chances of investment
Both current and non-current assets are recorded on the balance sheet
Current assets are intended for consumption of sale realised during a year
Current assets is used for trading or transactions
Current assest have direct results of the profit gained in the business such as bank balance
Non-current assets are used for a longer duration (12 months)
Non-current assets used for productive investment purposes
Has very low impact of the profit gained as it only deals with things like machinery
6. the accumulated profit is also known as the retained earnings, retained profit and unappropriated profit. what is the accumulated profit and why do accountants and bookkeepers use different names for the same thing? (6 marks)
Accumulated profits is profits that are not paid as dividend but is transfered over to the accounts for the next year. Also can be used to reinvest in the core of the business to help pay off debts or to purchase a capital asset.
The reasons why accountants and bookkeepers use different names for the same thing is because bookkeepers are the people who record the financial transactions in a business in the form, of journals otherwise known as books, these transactions include receipts, slaes and payments made by the...
...Immigration to the United States of America has been an ongoing process since colonizing America. The changingpattern of immigration has varied throughout the last century. These changes were brought on by new immigration laws, political, economical, and demographic pressures. The most profound changes in immigration patterns occurred after the Immigration Law Reform in 1965 resulting in immigration from countries that did not send immigrants before, and a dramatic increase of immigrants from previous sending countries. For example Europe, which accounted for two-thirds of legal immigrants in the 1950s, added only 15 percent in the 1980s.
Modern immigrants groups after 1965 came from Vietnam, the Philippines, South East Asia, Latin America and the latest major influx from Africa. The increase in Asian immigration has been the most dramatic. While the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 had ended immigration from China, immigration from Japan and the Philippines to Hawaii and the continental United States continued to the early 1900s. Japanese Immigration had been restricted by the Gentleman's Agreement of 1907, and the immigration Acts of 1924 ended all Asian immigration by establishing a fixed quota in the proportion of the national population in 1880. Before the Immigration and Naturalization Act Amendments of 1965, the Asians made up only 6 percent of immigrants. After 1965 the Asians took advantage of the immigration law. According...
Comparison of Ethnic Stratification in Australia and the United States
SOC308: Racial & Ethnic Groups
Dr. J Kipp
September 1, 2014
Comparison of Ethnic Stratification in Australia and the United States
Australia is a large continent located between the Indian Ocean and the South
Pacific Ocean. Its climate is generally dry to semi dry, with a temperate climate in the
south and east, and a tropical climate in the north. The terrain is mostly low plateaus with
deserts and a fertile plain in the southeast. It is the world’s smallest continent, but the
sixth largest country by total area. The country is made up of the Australian continent,
the island of Tasmania, and several smaller islands. It is the sixth largest country in the
world, comprising three basic ethnic groups. Whites make up 92% of the population, Asians seven percent, and aboriginal and other groups comprise just one percent of the population. Both countries are culturally diverse and, to a degree, embrace multiculturalism. Although quite similar in ethnicity, the United States and Australia have different approaches to ethnic stratification and both could benefit from studying the mistakes each has made in order to achieve true ethnic harmony, equality and multiculturalism for both countries.
Because Australians tend to embrace multiculturalism to a...
...Jonathan Chao 11/15/12
AP Human Geography Period 2/ Ms. Graef
Population and Migration Assignment Re-write
Botswana, located at 22.9906°S and 25.1557°E, is known to be the most advanced country in Africa, where poverty is common and at its worst. What makes this country covered, with a large wilderness and desert sand, a middle-income nation is its abundance of diamonds. Almost half of its economy is run off the selling of diamonds. It is the world’s number one diamond selling country, making Russia second. But with the Kalahari Desert covering most of Botswana, it is difficult for agriculture to exist but cattle. Botswana’s government is a multi-party democracy that makes it free of corruption. With little to no corruption in the government, there is a good human rights record. Botswana may be the best in Africa, but there is a different result when compared to the rest of the world.
581,730 squared km of earth make up Botswana which 2,098,018 people are in. 2,098,018 people may seem to be a big number, but if you compare it to the world which has more than 7 billion people, it’s clearer that it makes up a small percentage. Botswana only makes up of 0.3 percent out of the world population. In Botswana, there are 3.7 people per kilometer, but the physiological density, which is 463, is totally different. Botswana is mostly made up of desert which is not arable so the physiological density is much higher. Because Botswana is...
...Italians followed relatives that were already established in Australia, many Italians had tried to make a living to be able to send money back to their relatives in Italy that were suffering from severe poverty in post war Italy, or simply just wanted to have a better future for themselves and their families. A lot of Italian migrants travelled to Australia with little to no money, a suitcase and the clothes that they were wearing. Many Italians had been called to work as soon as they had disembarked from the ships they had arrived on. Italians migrated primarily in a search for a better income, but ultimately wanted to establish themselves back in their homeland.
Although many Australians were welcoming to the new Italian immigrants, there were also quite a lot of Australians who were not so pleased with the Italians coming and taking the jobs. The view from some Australians towards Italians was that they were the enemy, and now that they were migrating to Australia and taking a lot of jobs from Australians, made many hate the Italians. With this hatred there was a fair amount of racism created mainly attacking the Italians.
A large amount of Italians were not very well educated as they had only completed up to the fifth grade, and a lot of Italians did not have a chance to undertake schooling, as they were most of the time straight into work. A typical Italian would have a strong connection and loyalty to their family,...