Aboriginal Adult Education: Finding the Equinox
An exploration of the identified barriers to Aboriginal
participation in education and strategies to create equity.
Student Number 6102539
October 13, 2005
Aboriginal adult education participation is significantly lower than those of non-Aboriginal people in Canada. Literacy, high school completion, training, and post secondary education engagement in the Aboriginal adult community is increasing but statistics indicate that Aboriginal people are completing high school and post secondary education at rates as low as one third of that of non-Aboriginal people. The barriers Aboriginal people are faced with when returning to school have been studied by a number of researchers over the past two decades. By exploring the research over the past twenty years about Aboriginal adult education non-completion and examining the divide between societal or systems barriers and individual or personal barriers, recommended strategies to overcome barriers and the best practices to create equity in access to education and completion can be identified and implemented. Like the equinox, the differences between Aboriginal adult success in education and training and non-Aboriginal success in education and training is like night and day. The balance between these differences can benefit Aboriginal adult learners by seeing the barriers as opportunities to support Aboriginal individual families and communities to share responsibility to create a future in education where Aboriginal education is respected and individuals are successful. Aboriginal people, whether they reside on or off reserve, are First Nation, Métis, Innu, or some combination of all of these have more obstacles than other Canadian counterparts. They may be Traditional and Spiritual, Christian, Atheist or any other religious affiliation and they may come from large families or simply be a single parent with a child. Undoubtedly though, the majority of Aboriginal people experience the highest unemployment rate and the lowest educational attainment level whether they are youth or adults and whether they reside in remote areas or in the cities. Literature Review
Through exploring previous research that identified barrier to education and training, the solutions to retention and successful of Aboriginal adult learners can be accessed. Aboriginal political organizations, educational institutions and government have struggled with accessibility issues, not just in Canada but in the United States, New Zealand and Australia. (Beetson, 1997). Malatest, 2002, identified the barriers as distrust, lack of preparation, feelings of social discrimination and isolation, unemployment and poverty, lack of respect for cultural differences, and significant family demands. In his study “Best Practices in Increasing Aboriginal Postsecondary Enrolment Rates” ( CMEC, 2002) with key stakeholders and a review of the literature on Aboriginal post secondary education, Malatest’s barriers create an image that barriers are created within the individual, family, and community by pointing to individual’s feelings of distrust and isolation. Malatest groups unemployment and poverty together as a barrier as though there was a relationship between these variables, and culture and family as negative aspects that create barriers for individuals. Later, Malatest refined his definition of barriers to Aboriginal post secondary success as “historical barriers, social barriers, geographic and demographic barriers, cultural barriers, and individual/personal barriers.” ( Malatest, 2004) While these barriers suggested there was some influence of the system on an individual’s potential to succeed, Malatest insinuates that the majority of responsibility for lack of success resides with the individual. Poor self-concept and motivation were central themes of the literature review...
Student number: 20134571
Science 1 in the Early Years
Assessment: Item 1- Views of teaching and promoting science of young learners
The pedagogy of play can be hard to understand and part of the reason for this is it’s so difficult to explain how children learn by play because play isn’t simply; it is complex. Each child begins their early childhood education with a set of skills and prior knowledge that is influenced by their family, culture and past experiences (Fellows &Oakley, 2010). The past knowledge should become the foundation for developing an understanding of scientific concepts (Duschl, Schweingruber & Shouse, 2007). Children are naturally inquisitive, creative and aware of the world around them (Campbell & Jobling, 2012). Play is an important development tool and an effective way to teach children scientific concepts while using their prior knowledge (Preston, Mules, Baker & Frost, 2007). Learning science through play shows children that science is useful and enjoyable and is a significant aspect of the real world (Bulunuz, 2013). This essay will review teaching science through play, theorists who support play and the way in which the Australian curriculum and EYLF support play pedagogy.
Science and Play
Play pedagogy is a context for learning through which children organise and make sense of their social worlds, as they engage actively with people, objects and representations. Research shows...
...CHALLENGES FOR ADULT STUDENTS IN FOSTERING EDUCATION
Higher education continues to change, particularly in terms of the student body. In the past, colleges and universities were often populated by recent high school graduates who were training for their first jobs. Today, the higher education institution includes people in just about every phase of life. No longer are people expected to stay in the same vocational field, and schools are increasingly gearing their programs and services to older learners who are interested in new fields, career changes, and simply learning about unique subjects. Of course, it can be a bumpy road for some adults, particularly if they have not been in school for quite some time. While some of these adults may be confident when it comes to professional skills, it can be an intimidating experience to step onto a college campus. With that in mind, here are a few of the major challenges that are sometimes experienced by adult learners.
The first challenged has something to do with time and energy, and how it is prioritized. The job or the family takes too much energy and the person does not intend to use the free time left on learning activities. We call this category "lack of time and/or energy". At first sight, this factor falls well into Cross (1981) and Darkenwald & Merriam (1982) situational barriers, that is barriers related to the...
I am a student and a pre-service teacher in Australia. I have been lucky to have had a quality education. I am looking forward to graduate and become a full time teacher. It has been a rather challenging experience since people from my race still face some inequalities albeit minor in various sectors including education. I have always wondered what the source of these inequalities were and thus decided to carry out a study in the history of Australia in general but in particular within the Australian education system. My findings were appalling, confirming my suspicions of a historical inequality in Australia.
In A Brief History of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education in Australia by Kaye Price the history of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people is presented in a profound sense. Price a “mixed blood” Australian who was lucky enough to get an education and who is currently now a teacher traces the history of Australia from the Europeans arrival. Price (2014) notes that the aborigines existed in Australia long before the European settlers arrived on the vast island. When the Europeans arrived, they at first intermingled with the natives before turning against them and considering them an inferior race. The Europeans considered themselves as superior and thought the local inhabitants to be...
By Mortimer J. Adler
When I read Adler’s passage, "Education consists in the growth of understanding, insight and ultimately some wisdom. Only in mature soil, soil rich with experience, can ideas really take root", (Adler) my first reaction was to defend childhood education based on my work history and education. Children learn through play and through play they have experiences which are very much a part of their education. These are experiences that last a life time from their intellectual development to their social-emotional growth. I felt that the author was criticizing the education of young children by saying children are only trainable or schooled not educated by life experiences. After reading the entire article, I have come to the conclusion that we are all trying to achieve ultimate wisdom or education through life experiences with the strongest foundation being early training and social-emotional development.
Adler states that children are more trainable then adults. Through my experience I have found this to be true in many aspects. Children are able to learn and speak a second language just through interacting with peers that speak the foreign language. This process usually depends on the child and the level of language skills they already possess. Concepts and skills are learned through play and interactions...
...Community Based AdultEducation
A. Global Assessment of Community Based AdultEducation. This includes most important contributions they can make to society in the face of what are considered the most significant challenges of the 1990's. Who are the customers and how can they best be served? Which of the philosophies of adulteducation are most evident in each case?
Adult educators in community based development identify with a specific content area or with a specific clientele. For example literacy (the adult reading programs established throughout different communities) and also health (aids awareness programs).
Aims and purposes of community-based adulteducation are usually directly related to specific community issues.
Community Development (strictly an educational process; everything else is secondary) vs. Popular Education (providing social skills useful to the oppressed).
Community-Based education operates on the assumption that a given community has potential to solve many of its problems.
The customers are the people in the community with common needs.
Paulo Freire is the principle thinker under the Popular Education.
B. What trends are evident (or can be expected) that will impact such institutions:
Education with the people...
...Introduction to M-theory
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This article is an accessible, non-technical introduction to the subject. For the main encyclopedia article, see M-theory[->0].
Theory[hide] · String theory[->4] Superstring theory Bosonic string theory M-theory (simplified) Type I string Type II string F-theory Heterotic string String field theory|
Concepts[show] · [->5]|
Related topics[show] · [->6]|
Scientists[show] · [->7]|
GlossaryHYPERLINK \l ""[show][->8] · [->9]|
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In non-technical terms, M-theory[->11] presents an idea about the basic substance of the universe[->12].
Contents[hide] · 1 Background 2 Status 3 See also 4 References 5 Books 6 External links|
In the early years of the 20th century, the atom[->13] – long believed to be the smallest building-block of matter[->14] – was proven to consist of even smaller components called protons[->15], neutrons[->16] and electrons[->17], which are known as subatomic particles[->18]. Beginning in the 1960s, other subatomic particles were discovered. In the 1970s, it was discovered that protons and neutrons (and other hadrons[->19]) are themselves made up of smaller particles called quarks[->20]. Quantum theory[->21] is the set of rules that describes the interactions of these particles.
In the 1980s, a new mathematical model of theoretical physics[->22] called string theory[->23]...
Part of being an effective educator involves understanding how adults learn best (Lieb,1991). Andragogy (adult learning) is a theory that holds a set of assumptions about how adults learn. Andragogy emphasises the value of the process of learning. It uses approaches to learning that are problem-based and collaborative rather than didactic, and also emphasises more equality between the teacher and learner.
Knowles identified the six principles of adult learning outlined below.
Adults are internally motivated and self-directed
Adults bring life experiences and knowledge to learning experiences
Adults are goal oriented
Adults are relevancy oriented
Adults are practical
Adult learners like to be respected
1. Adults are internally motivated and self-directed
Adult learners resist learning when they feel others are imposing information, ideas or actions on them (Fidishun, 2000).
Your role is to facilitate a students' movement toward more self-directed and responsible learning as well as to foster the student's internal motivation to learn.
As clinical educator you can :Set up a graded learning program that moves from more to less structure, from less to more responsibility and from more to less direct supervision, at an appropriate pace that is challenging...
...Adulteducation is very important. Adults must know the basic things in life. the government conducts adulteducation programmes to improve the litteracy level amongst the adults. for example, a woman should know how to care of her family's various aspects child and prevent her child from diseases. a man should know how to earn bread for the family. If the adults know how to take care of various aspects of life, it is just a way to improve our way of living. By improving litteracy level, we can create a better family, better village,better state, better country and a better world.
Adulteducation is very important. Adults must know the basic things in life. the government conducts adulteducation programmes to improve the litteracy level amongst the adults. for example, a woman should know how to care of her family's various aspects child and prevent her child from diseases. a man should know how to earn bread for the family. If the adults know how to take care of various aspects of life, it is just a way to improve our way of living. By improving litteracy level, we can create a better family, better village,better state, better country and a better world.Adult education is very important. Adults must know the basic things in life. the government...