There are many different 9/11 conspiracy theories that disagree with the widely accepted account that the September 11 attacks were committed solely by al-Qaeda. In a 2008 global poll of 16,063 people in 17 countries, majorities in only nine countries believe al Qaeda was behind the attacks. 46% of those surveyed believed al-Qaeda was responsible for the attacks, 15% believed the U.S. government was responsible, 7% believed Israel was and another 7% believed some other perpetrator, other than al Qaeda, was responsible. The most popular of all conspiracy theories is that the collapse of the Twin Towers and World Trade Center were the result of a controlled demolition rather than structural failure due to fire. Another pretty popular belief is that the Pentagon was hit by a missile launched by elements from inside the U.S. government or that a commercial airliner was allowed to do so because of the American military. Another conspiracy deals with Larry Silverstein. Silverstein (the new leaseholder for the WTC) had been going to the Twin Towers "Windows on the World" restaurant (there were no survivors on this level) to dine and meet with his new tenants, he had been doing this straight since July 26 2001. But on 9/11 he didn't go because he claimed his wife made a dermatologist appointment for him. Many truthers also point out that in the interview which he is asked where he was on 9/11 he appears to be showing signs of lying. This raised suspicion in many Americans. There is also no concrete video evidence that any aircraft hit the pentagon. The one video camera on the scene that was actually trained on the site of the crash was a time lapse camera that flipped from a blurry shot of the beginning of something incoming to a full-blown explosion. 9/11 investigators have argued that without a direct image of an airplane in the security footage, it can't be proven that what hit the Pentagon was actually a plane. They back up this claim by saying that there was...
Intellectual in Anti-Intellectual
“In fact, one thing that I have noticed . . . is that all of these conspiracy theories depend on the perpetrators being endlessly clever. I think you'll find the facts also work if you assume everyone is endlessly stupid.” (Kraus, 1999-2013) A quote that says it all about our society believing anything you tell them. This research paper is to go over a number of general myths also known as conspiracy theories repeated by the media and individuals of belief or practice, as well as people who have been convinced that some idiotic conspiracy theories are intellectual deviations from the ordinary rather than just acknowledging a common historical and social phenomenon. If someone says during the flood in New York City caused by a hurricane that Sharks were swimming down the streets, well then people will believe it. The problem with our society is that we are as a whole not intellectual enough to actually do the research and find out that one of many Conspiracy theories are not true. The world was supposedly coming to an end December 21, 2012. That theory was not true, but look how it affected the world. People prepared to die just because a calendar ended. One story told by one person caused the whole world to go insane (Zell, 2012). This is the case for almost all conspiracy theories out there. In 1492...
In his 1989 article Mouck cites Morgan (1988) who observed that:
“The idea that accountants represent reality ‘as is ‘ through the means of numbers that are objective and value free, has clouded the much more important insight that accountants are always engaged in interpreting a complex reality, partially, and in a way that is heavily weighted in favor of what the accountant is able to measure and chooses to measure…” (p. 480).
Discuss the extent to which the “scientific” world-view of mainstream accounting researchers, is grounded on a belief that “reality” exists independently of thee human subject and the possible implications this has for accounting theory development.
Accounting is a subject that is guided with principles and regulations. Thus, it is often regarded as a rigid, rigorous, and highly analytical discipline with very precise interpretations. However, this is far from the truth. For instance, two organizations that are otherwise homogeneous can apply different valuation methods giving entirely distinct but equally correct answers. One may argue that a choice between accounting schemes is merely an “accounting construct” the sorts of “games” accountants play that are exclusively of relevance to them but have no pertinent in the “real world.” Once again this is entirely false. For example, valuation of inventory using either LIFO (Last-in-last-out) or FIFO (First-in-first-out) has an impact on income tax,...
16 March 2012
The Truth Behind Conspiracy Theories
September 11 of 2001, signifiesd a date that brought our attention to a world full of controversy. The United States suffered the gruesome effects of a terrorist hi-jacking unit. The Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and an open area in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, were the pinpoints of the terrorist attack on the United States. Eleven years later, people are still asking the questions of how could something like this have happened and why? Conspiracy theorists have come up with thousands of different theories that signify the attachment of the United States government. These theories range from well thought out assumptions to someone just making things up to be read over the internet. Some of these conspiracies are as simple as the President telling the Navy to stand down for their standard procedure of intercepting planes the day of 9/11. More educated conspiracy theorists believe that there is no way that the impact should have caused the buildings collapse and that the temperature of the jet fuel was not hot enough to destroy the buildings. Even though this is a much more educated conspiracy, they are still conspiracies that are falsely misleading our citizens to believe that our government was behind this attack. Which in reality, our government had just as much of a clue as the families of the victims on this...
Theories and Practice: Human Services in Criminal Justice CJHS/400
October 20, 2014
Throughout my experience my current course, Theories and Practices: Human Services in Criminal Justice, I have learned plenty of information about the various theories of psychotherapy in counseling. Some of these theories operate on the basis of recognizing errors in thinking and correcting those errors. Other theories operate on the basis of multiculturalism and the fact that all clients are unique and deserve to be treated as such. As a result of learning from my readings and of my discussions with class mates, I was able to create my own intervention theory for counseling.
Explanation of Theory and why I believe in it
Any student in a human service course should be able to develop his or her own intervention theory by the time the course ends. My personal theory will involve both cognitive and multicultural approaches to therapy. Cognitive approaches to therapy operate on the assumption that by correcting the clients’ faulty beliefs, they can learn to behave more appropriately, how to think differently, and how to act on these learnings (Jones-Smith, 2012). On the other hand, Multicultural approaches to therapy suggest that counseling theories...
...Expectancy Violation Theory
Have you ever felt like someone was violating your personal space? What makes you decide what is too close for comfort? The Expectancy Violation Theory explains how we react to our person space being invaded and how we perceive the violator. We have different opinions of people invading our personal space depending on who the violator is. Would you feel the same way about your boss hugging you as if your friend hugged you? That is what the expectancy violation theory is trying to explain.
We judge if someone is too close to us or invading our personal space by certain criteria such as: age, gender, and ethnicity. The amount of space we put between one another can have an influence of the message and meaning that you or someone else is trying to portray. There are four zones that we consciously use to define the boundaries of which we want people in. There’s the intimate space which is from 0-18 in. This space is reserved for people you feel extremely comfortable around. Next is the personal space which is from 18 in. - 4ft. This space is mostly where you keep friends and family. The further of this space is usually for acquaintances or people such as cashiers. Then there’s your social space which ranges from 4 – 12ft. People that may occupy your social space are fellow employees or people you see in a more formal manner. The last zone is your public space which is from 12ft. and...
Theories and Hypotheses: The Differences and Similarities
This paper is an examination of theories and hypotheses, their differences and similarities. The four major types of theories studied are Deductive, Inductive, Grounded and Axiomatic. Each type of theories is introduced and explained. Additionally, a hypothesis is defined in relation to a theory, and the key differences between the two explained. The variables which exist between the theories and the hypotheses is also explored.
Theories and Hypotheses: The Differences and Similarities
At some point in everyone’s life, they have said something that summed up many different pieces of information in their life about one particular subject. They have reached their conclusions, based upon their experiences and formulated it into an idea why something exists or happens. This is called a theory. A theory is an explanation using observed facts as they relate to a particular aspect of life (Hoover, 1992). Theories exist about almost everything, from who killed President Kennedy and are the Freemasons trying to rule the world, all the way to why people in one particular community have a higher rate of criminal activity then another area. The common link between is a fact....
This paper will discuss how the Adlerian theory reflects my personal values and beliefs as it relates to the practice of counseling as a clinician.
Adlerian Theory and My Style
After reading the three assigned theories the Adlerian theory more closely matched my personal values and beliefs. I selected the population that I currently work to be my current clients to be the basis of my paper. In my present job, the population served is clients with children that currently excused from work by a medical doctor. So as a counselor, I would use the Adlerian theory.
The Adlerian theory contains six key concepts. Adlerian view of human nature focuses on feelings. This is the first key concept. These feelings viewed not negatively but positively as the client world view that are necessary for creativity. Alderian focus on environment and heredity is not as important as it is to understand that each person make choices. These choices can improve and bring change to one’s life. As a clinician, the way the clinician view human nature is critical to this theory. Family make up and environment does not dictate the client's future behavior. Changes are necessary for any real change in a client’s life. The population that clinician work with is at a point in their life when some change is necessary. This concept is essential in Adlerian theory known...
...IV: Theories in Scientific Research
Theories- are explanations of natural or social behaviour, event or phenomenon.
Scientific Theory- is a system of constructs (concepts) and propositions (relationship between those constructs). It presents a logical, systematic and coherent explanations of a phenomenon of interest.
Theories should explain why things happen rather than describe or predict. Prediction requires “correlations” while Explanations require “causations” or understanding the cause and effect.
Three conditions of establishing “causations”
1. Correlation between two constructs
2. Temporal precedence ( the cause must precede the effect in time)
3. Rejection of alternative hypothesis through testing.
Two types of Explanations
1. Idiographic Explanations- are those that explain a single situation or event in idiosyncratic detail.
2. Nomothetic Explanations- seek to explain a class of situations in general.
Benefits of using theories in research
1. Theories provide the underlying logic of the occurrence of natural or social phenomena by explaining what are the key drivers and outcomes of the target phenomena.
2. Helping us synthesize prior empirical findings within a theoretical framework and reconcile contradictory findings by discovering contingent factors influencing the two constructs.
3. Provide guidance for future research by helping identify constructs and relationship.