The Effect of French and Raven Power on knowledge Acquisition, Knowledge Creation and knowledge Sharing: An Empirical Investigation in Lebanese Organizations
Dr. Silva Karkoulian, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon Miss Yasmina Osman, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon
It has been documented that not much is known about the kinds of French and Raven powers that foster the acquisition, creation and sharing of organizational knowledge. This study extends the French and Raven power literature to the Lebanese Organizations and provides an empirical evidence of knowledge acquisition, knowledge creation and knowledge sharing. Results from the regression analysis of this study show that expert power is positively and significantly associated with knowledge acquisition, knowledge creation and knowledge sharing.
In the second half of the twentieth century, knowledge management proved to be a new managerial reform suited to the rapidly changing environment. Managers were encouraged to consider and treat their employee’s knowledge as a crucial source for the success of their organizations (Huseman and Goodman, 1999; Stewart, 1997; Sveiby, 1997). Many scholars have focused their attention on knowledge management. Grant (1996) argues that a source of organization’s competitive advantage is when organizations apply a great deal of effort to develop new knowledge and technology. This new knowledge and technology added to the organization have become more complicated in the current technological revolution, which requires combining and sharing knowledge and skills that several employees have. Knowledge management and creation could be completed through several tactics. Gold et al. (2001) stated that organizational structure is an important factor in leveraging technology and more specifically this organizational structure must be flexible to encourage sharing of knowledge and collaboration across traditional organizational boundaries to promote knowledge creation. Power perception and use is proved to be a key factor in managerial success and subsequent organizational advancement (Yukl et al., 1993). According to French and Raven (1959) power has five important bases which are namely, coercive, reward, legitimate, expert and referent. Despite the large amount of research on knowledge management, power, and the implication of power on managing knowledge, considerable less attention has been given to the issues associated with the dimensions of power, and knowledge management, which are essential for knowledge acquisition, knowledge creation and knowledge sharing (Yukl, 1994). The aim of this paper is to find effective ways to induce and facilitate knowledge management chiefly through exercising power in an organization, focusing particularly on knowledge acquiring, knowledge creation and knowledge using. However, no research has been conducted to challenge or affirm this assumption. This research provides an empirical investigation about the relationship between French and Raven Power and Knowledge Management within the organizations based in Lebanon. It examines thoroughly the effectiveness of these five forms of power along with their influence on knowledge acquisition, knowledge creation and knowledge sharing. Hence the primary aim of this paper is to contribute to empirical research validating the significance of managerial power on knowledge management. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: section 2 provides an overview of power, section 3 provides a brief review of knowledge acquisition, knowledge creation and knowledge sharing, and section 4 presents the methodology followed by the analysis and results in section 5. Finally, we present the findings of the study and our conclusions in section 6.
OVERVIEW OF POWER
Power is one of the major concepts in any organization. It can be an extremely important tool in the success or failure of an organization. The...
...Attaining power in works of literature can be a very effective way to bring a character to life. Once a character gains power, the reader sees their true personality, whether that is a good or evil personality. Power can bring people together and provide happiness or destroy a person and cause chaos. Many works of literature contain characters that are affected by power. Some characters are affected for the better while others are destroyed by the effects of power. The destructive effects of power are evident through characters in Lord of the Flies by William Golding, Xanadu by Audrey Thomas, and Macbeth by William Shakespeare.
The first effect of power on characters was made evident in the novel Lord of the Flies by William Golding. One character who was affected by power was Roger. His power was made evident when Golding wrote:
High overhead, Roger, with a sense of delirious abandonment, leaned all his weight on the lever. Ralph heard the great rock long before he saw it. He was aware of a jolt in the earth that came to him through the soles of his feet, and the breaking sound of stones at the top of the cliff. Then the monstrous red thing bounded across the neck and he flung himself fat while the tribe shrieked. The rock struck Piggy a glancing blow from chin to knee. (Golding 200)
...POWER: A capacity that A has to influence the behaviour of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes.
DEPENDENCY: B’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires.
BASES OF POWER:
Formal Power: Is established by an individual’s position in an organisation; conveys the ability to coerce or reward, from formal authority, or from control of information
1. Coercive Power
• A power base dependent on fear
2. Reward Power
• Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable
3. Legitimate Power
• The power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organisation
Personal Power: Is based on an individual’s unique characteristics and the respect and admiration of others
1. Expert Power
• Influence based on special skills or knowledge
2. Referent Power
• Influence based on possession by an individual of desirable resources or personal traits
DEPENDENCY: THE KEY TO POWER
The General Dependency Postulate
• The greater Bs dependency on A, the greater the power A has over B
• Possession/control of scarce organisational resources that others need makes a manager powerful
• Access to optional resources (e.g., multiple suppliers) reduces the resource holder’s power
Reward Power can be gained from a person’s capacity to reward compliance. When a person is rewarded or might receive a potential reward through recognition, a good job assignment, a pay rise, or additional resources to complete a job, an employee may respond by carrying through with orders, requests and directions. Coercive power is considered the opposite of reward power. Coercive power is considered the ability of the power holder to remove something from a person or to punish a person for not conforming to a request. Some examples of coercive power include a strike action against a labor union, a threat of preventing promotion or a threat of litigation. Coercive power can have an incredible short-lived effect, it should appear obvious that reward power is more likely to generate greater results with less close observation and control than coercive power. The element of fear is a form of coercive power and the use of coercive power can leave behind its fair share of casualties. Although fear is likely the reason why coercive power can be effective, it generally has a short duration and can also generate a lengthy amount of dispute.
The five sources of organizational power are legitimate, reward, expert, referent and information. An example of...
...There are many aspects of an organization that can greatly affect their success and moral. Some of the areas that can play a key role in the organization are; power, politics, code of conduct, business intentions, objectivity, personal agendas, and organizational goals. Power and politics can have both a positive and negative affect on an organization. Businesses must make objective decisions and insure their intentions remain in line with the organization's goals. Organizations must not allow personal agendas to interfere with their business decisions and must make sound ethical decisions. Organizational politics can have a detrimental affect on employee's, moral, loyalty, and trust.
Power and PoliticsPower can be motivators in both a positive and negative manner. Wideman, 2003, states that power is the ability to persuade others to do the following; get them to do what you want them to do, when to do it, and in the manner you want them to do it. Wideman also maintains that influence is the exercise of authority or leadership, to persuade others, and organize them to follow. The struggle of power and influence by competing groups creates politics. Some believe that the practice of politics can be cunning and deceitful, while others believe it can be a motivator with positive results.
The reality is that office politics does exist in most organizations. Some issues in an organization that may create...
...The French Revolution’s Effects on Europe
The effects of the French Revolution were political, social, economic, and religious.
Europe was devastated and overjoyed by a revolution that happened in only France. There were many ways people rebelled which changed and affected Europe in different areas. A new political government began to form; borders of cities and countries were redrawn on European maps. Socialeffects included equality of the people and enlightenment of many citizens. The Bank of France developed economically along with simpler tax systems. Religious beliefs and traditions varied as Napoléon reformed the clergy. The effects of the French Revolution were political, social, economic, and religious.
The French revolution eventually resulted in a new government. The people of France began searching for new directory members among the military.1 During ‘The Reign of Terror’, they felt distain towards their current leaders, the Jacobins, as they were complete radicals and executed people who went against them.2 Two of the directory members, Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès and Napoléon Bonaparte, plotted The Coup of Brumaire (1794) against them, it resulted in a new leader; Napoléon.3 The French government went from an absolute monarch, to being ruled by a very large group then diminishing from there on. Napoléon was an essential person...
...The French and Indian War had an almost innumerable number of effects on the political, economic and ideological relations between Britain and the American colonies. The war touched the entirety of America’s diverse population; from the Native Americans to the soldiers. Some were gladdened by the invigorated ties to England while others were enraged by the economic situation. There is no doubt that the war truly altered and revolutionized the American colonies.
As a rule, the Native Americans are perhaps the most overlooked sector of the population of the colonies. This war completely varied their knowledge of their land and its value. “We know our lands have now become more valuable,” (Document B). No more would they be fooled by the trickery that cheated them of Manhattan Island; no longer were they ignorant to real estate. They opposed the immigrants who settled in their lands, pleading with the colonists to control these squatters lest violence should ensue. “Your people daily settle on these lands…we must insist on your removing them, as you know they have no right to settle,” (Document B).
Consequently, this attitude that the Native Americans portrayed may have affected the way Great Britain regarded its newly acquired French land. Great Britain did not want the colonists to settle in the western lands past the Mississippi (Document A). The colonists, however, felt that it was their right to settle these lands....
...Athena’s Importance in the Art and Architecture of Ancient Greece
Kalinka Caldas Premawardhana
Prof. Nada Jecmenica
August 09, 2010
There are many aspects of classical Greek life. Two of the most important are art and religion. How are art and religion related in classical Greek life? To answer this question I will focus on the mythology of Athena, the goddess most important to the ancient Greeks. I will also focus on the inspiration that she gave to artists through painting, sculpture, and architecture. My argument is that the religious worship of Athena was done through art and architecture.
Mythology was very important in the cultural life of Ancient Greece. The myths of gods and goddesses were part of the daily lives of the Greeks. One example of this is the representation of gods and goddesses through ritual and poetry. The poems of Homer described the legends of the gods and goddesses. According to Edith Hamilton, “Greek mythology begins with Homer, generally believed to be not earlier than a thousand years before Christ” (Hamilton, 14). The Greeks believed that the gods, heroes, and the natural world had life and that they could be punished by them. They considered their own culture to be sufficient to support their lives and ritual practices. The mythological figures were essential parts of the lives and beliefs of the ancient Greeks.
One of the most important mythological figures was Athena, daughter of Zeus. Athena was born from her...
...Revolution? The major cause of the French Revolution was the disputes between the different types of social classes in French society. The French Revolution of 1789-1799 was one of the most important events in the history of the world. The Revolution led to many changes in France, which at the time of the Revolution, was the most powerful state in Europe. The Revolution led to the development of new political forces such as democracy and nationalism. It questioned the authority of kings, priests, and nobles. The Revolution also gave new meanings and new ideas to the political ideas of the people.<br><br>The French Revolution was spread over the ten year period between 1789 and 1799. The primary cause of the revolution was the disputes over the peoples' differing ideas of reform. Before the beginning of the Revolution, only moderate reforms were wanted by the people. An example of why they wanted this was because of king Louis XIV's actions. At the end of the seventeenth century, King Louis XIV's wars began decreasing the royal finances dramatically. This worsened during the eighteenth century. The use of the money by Louis XIV angered the people and they wanted a new system of government. The writings of the philosophes such as Voltaire and Diderot, were critical of the government.<br><br>They said that not one official in power was corrupt, but that the whole system of government needed some change....