Video Notes: “Inside Islam” (The History Channel, 2002)
Streaming segments c. 10 minutes each
Part 1 of 9: Intro and basic facts: http://youtube.com/watch?v=hAjsu1ATrts
Islam means Peace and Submission (The peace that comes from submission, the attention to God that comes from peace.) Allah Akbar means “God is great.”
Sunni = 85% of Muslim population; Shia = 10%; Sufi less than 5% Islam is not only a religion of the Middle East: largest population of Muslims is in India. Largest Islamic country is Indonesia. Of same faith tradition as both Christians and Jews
Muslims & Jews are both monotheistic, differ only on mainly messianic theology Places of worship differ yet can coexist; Spain fostered all three Abrahamic faiths during pre-Ferdinand and Isabella era (pre-1492)
Part 2 of 9: Pre Muslim Mecca, Quraish tribe, Muhammad’s early years & first vision, Qur’an, 1st pillar shahadah, and start of 2nd pillar prayer: http://youtube.com/watch?v=KtFkhC7DIIo
Muslims descended from Hagar and Ishmael, who fled to the desert Abraham, according to Muslim legend, built Ka’ba
Quraysh tribe controlled Mecca as trading city. Later put icons and statues of various tribal Gods inside Ka’ba so Mecca would become even more important as a pilgrimage site. Muhammad was born several generations later in 570 AD into a wealthy family. His dad died, his grandfather sent him to live with trading caravans. As a young man he became a talented caravanier, married Khadijah Muhammad illiterate, so others recorded his recitations
Qur’an means “recitation,” a mix of poetry, stories, admonitions, advice and warnings.
Part 3 of 9: 2nd pillar (prayer) continued, Muhammad gains followers, conflict with Meccans, Hijra, to Ummayad dynasty; beginning of 3rd pillar: http://youtube.com/watch?v=5h4bcCSsc9A&NR=1
Muhammad gave sermons against polytheism to pilgrims arriving at the Ka’ba in Mecca; was persecuted by Quraish Muhammad had no strong political ally, few followers initially. Journeyed to Yathrib (later named Medina, “City of the Prophet”) to arbitrate dispute between city states. Became year 0 in Islamic calendar, 622 CE. Set up first Islamic community (Ummah)
Meccans were enraged, attacked Medina to destroy Muslims.
Battle of Badr, outnumbered by Meccans, yet Medinans won
630 AD Muslims returned to Mecca
Cleansed Abraham’s sacred temple (Ka’ba) of idols of pilgrims, kept the Ka’ba (lit. “cube”) as the central expression of monotheism Offered Meccans freedom for peace, many converted
Arab tribes came to pay tribute to Muhammad and convert
Umayyads 1st dynasty 750
Within a century of Muhammad’s death Muslims controlled more land than the Roman Empire—Turkey to parts of China. Jews and Christians were exempt from conversion to Islam
3rd pillar: Charity is heavily emphasized in the Qur’an, even more than the subordinate status of women
Part 4 of 9: 3rd pillar, charity, continued; 4th pillar, Ramadan, Abbasid dynasty; Crusades; Mongols: http://youtube.com/watch?v=ZKsm3O23Itg&NR=1
3rd Pillar: Charity: From everything you own you give 2.5%
All money collected must be given to those in need
One must follow the fast during the month of Ramadan as the 4th pillar Fast lasts from sunrise till sunset
Exceptions are made for the sick, weak, children, and the mothers who are expecting It’s a time to intensify your efforts to build your relationship with God The festival of the great Eid (Lit. festival) of the breaking of the fast Shia split from the Sunni after the death of Hussein (680 AD) There was a discrepancy of how leaders should be put in place Shia believed that leaders should be direct descendants of Muhammad Sunni believed leaders should be elected democratically
8th century golden age in Iraq, Abbasid dynasty arose in Bagdad Abbasids valued learning, Greek philosophy and natural science. Algebra invented, decimals, exponents.
Medicine developed, orthopedics, mental illness...
- According to Muslims, Islam is the final version of God’s Religion. It was revealed to Adam (Alahi Salam).
- Allah finally revealed to a man named Muhammad (PBUH); he is now considered the last Prophet of Islam.
- Islam is an Arabic word which means ‘Surrender’, ‘Obedience’ or ‘Submission’.
- Muslims believe that they should surrender to the will of god.
- This is because Muslims believe that if a person totally obeys the will of Allah, they will achieve peace in themselves.
Belief and Teachings
- The religion with god is Islam. (Quran 3:19 )
- You, who believe, obey God and Messenger. (Quran 4:59 )
- Who can be better in religion than he who submits his whole self to God? (Quran 4:125)
- One of the key beliefs of a Muslim is Tawheed, this is the believe that there is only one god.
- Tawheed in Arabic means attributing Oneness to Allah and describing Him as being One and Unique, with no partner or peer in His Essence and Attributes.
Beliefs and teachings
- Say: He is Allah, the one and only!
Allah, the eternal absolute!
He is the father of none, and none is his father.
And there is none like unto him.
Allah. There is no god but he, the living, is the self-subsisting, Eternal.
No slumber can seize him or sleep. His are all things in the heaven and on earth.
Risalah is the Arabic word for Messenger. The messengers are...
...Islam is a tradition of love and submission to God that ultimately strives for peace. The ancient religion emerged in the seventh century and was able to appeal to the public through its deeply entrenched attitudes to peace. Islam’s constant endeavour for peace can be presented through its ancient traditions and sacred texts, history and historical events and current practices and contemporary events of the religion.
The sacred texts of Islam are the Quran, which contains the revelations from Allah and the Hadith, which outlines the way of the prophet Muhammad. These sacred texts are fundamental to Islam and it is through these texts that Muslims formulate an understanding of peace. This is reflected through the Quranic statement:
“O ye who believe! Come, all of you, into complete peace and follow not the footsteps of evil. Surely he is your open enemy.” (2:208)
Despite the world of violence and belligerence that Muhammad was born into, his approach to the ethics of war and peace differed from the prevailing tribal culture of the time. Muhammad’s attitude with regards to the concept of peace was one of active non-violent resistance and open defiance of persecution by non-believers. The essence of this is represented in the Quranic verse:
“The recompense of evil is punishment like it, but whoever forgives and amends, he shall have his reward from Allah; surely he does not love the unjust.” (Sural al-Shura 42:40-43 ‘The...
...REL1006S: COURSE ESSAY
Discuss how Islam is a quest to be faithful to the transcendent, both directly and through social engagement
Islam is a religion based on the belief in one God, His messenger and the four other pillars. These five pillars are central to Muslims, followers of Islam and mould their beings and are part of their everyday lives. This essay will look at the abovementioned pillars, what they are and how they form part of the quest to be faithful to the transcendent. Mention will also be made to how Islam ‘plays out’ in everyday life, thus how this quest is and can be done both directly and through social engagement.
Firstly, we need to establish who or what the Transcendent is. I would like to describe the transcendent, according to Islamic beliefs, as being both Allah (Arabic word for God) and the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Allah, of course is the most important aspect of Islam but it is also relevant that great emphasis is placed on the Prophet. Muslims strive to be more like the Prophet, by following his ‘way of life’, the Sunnah and as a result, pleasing and becoming closer to God. The Five Pillars of Islam, based on work by Mark Sedgwick (2006) are important components of Muslim worship. The first of the five pillars is the “…recognition that there is no god other than God, and that Muhammad is the Prophet of God” (Sedgwick: 2006, 70). This may not seem like an ‘act of...
Is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a book considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God and by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of hadith) of considered by them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim.
Concerns the religion of Islam and its adherents, Muslims. "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "one who submits to God". Muslims and their religion have greatly impacted the political, economic, and military history of the Old World, especially the Middle East, where its roots lie. Though it is believed by non-Muslims to have originated in Mecca and Medina, Muslims believe that the religion of Islam has been present since the time of the prophet Adam. Muslims believe that prophets Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, among others, were all Islamic prophets, and they have equal veneration in the Qur'an. The Islamic world expanded to include people of the Islamic civilization, inclusive of non-Muslims living in that civilization.
Timeline of Muhammad's Life (A.D)
570 - Born in Mecca
576 - Orphaned upon death of mother
595 - Marries Kadijah - older, wealthy widow
610 - Reports first revelations from angel at age of 40
619 - Protector uncle dies
622 - Emigrates from Mecca to Medina (the Hijra)
623 - Orders raids on Meccan caravans
624 - Battle of Badr (victory)
624 - Evicts Qaynuqa Jews from...
Mawlid an Nabi…….….……………………………………….…2
Lailat al Miraj……………………………………………………...3
Lailat al Qadr…….………………………………………………..4
Eid ul Fitr……………………………………………………………..5
Eid ul Adha…………………………….…………………………….6
Rites of passage…………………………………………..7-9
This book has been made for the readers to better understand the importance of both the Islamic Festivals and the Rites of passage from the point of view of Islams. There are only two Muslim festivals set down in Islamic law: Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha ("Eid" or "Id"
which means festival).There are also several other special days which Muslims celebrate.
The Islamic New Year’s Day.
This festival commemorates the Hijra (or Hegira) in 622 CE when the Prophet Mohammed moved from Mecca to Medina.
This was the beginning of the growth of Islam into a world faith. The Muslim calendar counts dates from the Hijra, which is why Muslim dates have the suffix A.H. (After Hijra).
There is no specific religious ritual required on this day, but Muslims will think about the general meaning of Hijra, and regard this as a good time for "New Year Resolutions".
The Qur’an uses the word Hijra to mean moving from a bad place or state of affairs to a good one - and so Muslims may think about how their faith helps them...
...book of Islam: the word of God revealed to the Prophet.
God’s disclosure of himself and his will to his people
The Arabic word for the one and only God
Arab desert nomad
Cube-shaped religious shrine believed to have been erected by Adam and then rebuilt by Abraham. Today it is the central shrine of Islam – the focal point for daily prayer and the pilgrimage – and is within the precincts of the great mosque of Mecca.
A form of government in which the power is invested in few, or in a dominant class or clique
The belief in many gods or more than one god
Absolutely trustworthy (free from error)
Islamic community; refers to the worldwide Muslim community
Lending money for interest
The succession to the sovereignty of the Islamic community
Those Muslims who follow the tradition (sunna) of the Prophet without acknowledging and political privilege to the descendants of ‘Ali’ or any other companion
those Muslims who believe that Muhammad designated ‘Ali and his rightful descendants the true leaders of the Muslim community.
Today over one billion people adhere to some form of Islam and the majority live outside the ‘Arab World’. It is the world’s second largest religion. Islam emerged in the seventh century in a region where Asia and Africa met and spread rapidly...
Extra Credit: InsideIslam
The documentary entitled, ‘InsideIslam: What a Billion Muslims Really Think,’ is an eye opening and interesting film. I think it is an important film to watch for those who need a more clear understanding of the Muslim religion. Before watching the film, I knew barely anything about Muslims. The documentary profiles and explores fear of Muslims and the Muslim anti-Americanism view. The film, produced by Unity Productions Foundation, is centered around a poll. The poll was taken by the Gallup World Poll, and according to researchers, it covered 90% of the global Muslim population. Over the course of six years the Gallup researchers gathered tons of information and made, “The most comprehensive and complete poll of Muslim opinion ever.” They asked questions to Muslim, American, and European, men and women of both minority and majority communities. They were asked their thoughts on Terrorism, Democracy, and gender equality. The remarkable amount of data gathered gives viewers a global opinion of Muslims around the world.
The film stresses that the relationship between the West and the Muslim world should be guided by “facts not fear.” But unfortunately fear has dominated public opinion in the United States. 9/11 had a large impact on this fear. After 9/11 Muslims became associated with acts of terror. A lack of understanding...
...IslamIslam is not only considered to be a spiritual connection to God, but it is a way of life; how one remembers God on day to day basis by not only praying five times a day but also by abiding to the rules and regulations that he has bestowed upon adherents for prevention of sin. The quote “If you want to be free of all affliction and suffering, hold fast to god, and turn wholly to him” is accredited to Abū Ḥāmid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazālī (c. 1058–1111), a highly significant Islamic Scholar during the “Islamic Golden Era”.
Abū Ḥāmid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazālī is recognised as a significant scholar throughout the Islamic faith, particularly to both Sunni and Sufi members. Firstly, his ability as a Fiqh scholar (Islamic jurisprudence) was great; through his study of Islamic Fiqh sciences, he was able to come up with various approaches, which significantly impacted upon Islam. From his ability as a Fiqh scholar, he was able to form judgements objectively.
Al Ghazali’s impact on the development of Islam can be seen in his accomplished synthesis of the areas of; theology, philosophy, law and mysticism. He has made significant contributions to each of these disciplines yet what is often referred to as his most significant contribution was his ability to bring out the best from all these disciplines and strands of Islam in a way that provided strength and maturity to Islamic thought....