Abnormal Psychology Exam 1 Notes
Chapter 1: Abnormal Behavior in Historical context
Myths and Miconceptions about abnormal behavior
There is no single definition of psychological abnormality
No single definition of psychological normality
What is A Pychological disorder
Breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning. Personal Distress
Difficulty performing appropriate and expected roles
Impairment is set in the context of a person’s background
Atypical or not culturally expected response
Example: hearing voices or hallucination, seeing spirits
All disorders do not necessarily cause impairment or distress Abnormal Behavior Devined
A Psychological Dysfunction Associated with Distress or Impairment in Functioning that is not Typical or Culturally Expected Response The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV)
DSM contains diagnostic criteria
Psychopathology is the scientific study of psychological disorders. Abnormal behavior needs to be understand in its contexts
The science of psychopathology
Mental health professionals
The PH.D.s: Clinical and counseling psychologists
The Psy.D’s: Clinical and counseling “Doctors of Psychology” M.D.’s psychiatrists
M.S.W.’s psychiatric and non-psychiatric social workers
MN/MSN’s: psychiatric nurses
United by the Scientist-Practitioner Framework
The Scientist-Practitioner Model
Producers of research
Consumers of research
Evaluators of their work using empirical methods
They conduct research and/ be a consumer or the research. They benefit from it. They practice it. Mental health professionals are
Consumers of science: they enhance the practice
Evaluators of science: determining the effectiveness of the practice Creator of science.
Begins with the Presenting Problem
This is the area of the patient’s concern. This is the problem that they present to the mental health professional Description aims to distinguish clinically significant dysfunction from common human experience Might not always be the issue at hand.
The nurse or physician will ask for a more detailed description and get more information. Tell me more about that. How often is this happening? Describe prevalence and incidence of disorders
Prevalence is the rate of the disorder in a population. How often It occurs within a group of people Incidence is the rate of the disorder during a given period of time. Could also be the number of cases during a given time. Describe onset of disorders
When did it start?
Acute v. insidious onset
Acute: sudden. It came out of nowhere
Insidious: gradual onset.
Describe course of disorders
What kind of patter does the pattern follow
Episode, time-limited, or chronic.
Episodic: does it come in waves?
Time-limited: happened once for a few days then never happened again. Chronic: has happened over a long period of time. Cannot go a certain amount of time without having something happen. Causation, Treatment, and outcome
What factors contribute to the development of psychopathology Study of Etiology: how did it happen? How did it start? What’s the cause? Biological influences, psychological influences, social. Etc Prognosis: The expected outcome. The prognosis may be good with treatment. The prognosis might be bad if the person has been in rehab 6 or 7 times and has seen no improvement. How can we best improve the lives of people suffering from psychopathology? Study of treatment development
Includes pharmacologic, psychosocial, and or
Historical COnceptions of abnormal behavior
Major psychological disorders have existed
In all cultures
Across all time periods
The causes and treatment of abnormal behavior varies widely
Across time periods
As particularly as a function of prevailing paradigms or would views Three dominant traditions include
The thing that has changed regarding abnormal disorders is our understanding. The...
...The Arctic Circle is located at a latitude of 66 degrees 33 feet 39 inches North. The problem with this statement is the actual latitude of the Arctic Circle is continuously changing due to the tilt of the Earth.
It is important to maximize your sample size when developing a predictive model like the height and shoe length model we explored in the Experimental Laboratory 1. What is the purpose of a large sample size? A large sample size provides the scientist with a more accurate representation of the sampled population and increases the predictability of the model.
The metric system is an international system of units based on the fundamental or base units of meter, gram, and liter.
What are the three major factors affecting net radiation? Time of day and year, cloud cover, and albedo
A meteogram is a time cross-section of meteorological data including but not limited to temperatures, winds, pressure, clouds, and current weather.
Dark colored surfaces like a dark roof reflect less radiation than light colored surfaces like snow.
The lowest layer of the atmosphere is the troposphere.
The summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere occurs on this date. June 21
The annual range of temperature may be described as the difference between the average temperatures of the warmest and coldest months.
Ozone filters out most of the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.
Hail is most commonly associated with cumulonimbus.
When warm moist air moves over...
...EXAM1 REVIEW NOTES
Tuesday, February 18, 2014
Polakowski (Lecture 1 and 2)
Human Nature/State of Nature
If left to their own devices (no government), how would people behave?
State of nature is a state of war
There would be no regulation of goods, services, infrastructure, awareness of worldly surroundings, etc.
Living with no government is the proper state of nature
A "common judge with authority puts all men in a state of nature"
"man has no idea of goodness, he must be naturally wicked"
The bigger the government gets, the more animosity builds between it and the citizens
Civilized society appears worse than a state of nature
Justification of the State
Role of government;
Allow people to transcend their interests and realize the general will
Structure of Government
Monarchy: single person is sovereign, vested with complete authority -- executive, legislative, and judicial powers
Self-love leads to war
Monarchy imposes order and maintains peace
Must satisfy people knowing they could be killed at any point
BUT, how to hold accountability?
Aristocracy: smaller group of people vested with some or all of government authority
People, by nature, are good, which allows for self-governance
Democracy maintains freedom and limits burden of law
-> As population increases and factions form, aristocracy rises...
Business research is the application of the scientific method in searching for the truth about business phenomena. It is a systematic and objective process to analyze information to help with business making decisions. It includes defining business opportunities and problems, generating and evaluating alternative courses of action, and monitoring employee and organizational performance. This process also includes idea and theory development, problem definition, searching for and collecting information, analyzing data, and communicating the findings and their implications.
Applied business research is conducted to address a specific business decision for a specific firm or organization. This type of research addresses a real life problem. Example – Should McDonald’s add pasta to its menu? Should Procter & Gamble produce teeth whitening kits?
Basic business research (pure research or exploratory) is conducted without a specific decision in mind and it usually does not address the needs of a specific organization. It attempts to expand the limits of knowledge in general, and as such it is not aimed at solving a particular pragmatic problem. It can be used to test the validity of a general business theory or to learn more about a particular business phenomenon. It provides the foundation for later applied research. Example – How is the road made? Is there a correlation between success and achievement? Are teams more successful than individuals?...
...Based on Las Casas’ book shows image of Spain as uniquely brutal and exploitative colonizer, gives other countries justification to colonize, challenge Spain’s hold
French and Dutch are what kind of empires? Commericial, looking for trading, gold and the Northwest passage
England is what kind of empire? Colonizing, individual men looking for land, and through the possession of land, freedom
Spain is what kind of empire? Extractive, looking to pull out wealth, gold, and goods and bring them back to the home country to make it wealthier, not focusing on colonization or trade
Northwest Passage- Route to Asia through N America
English colonization begins with Jamestown in 1607 by Virginia Company
5 Attributes to English Freedom:
1. King subject to rule of law (Magna Carta)
2. Security of persons and property
3. Habeas corpus- cannot be held indefinitely w/out charge
4. Right to face your accuser
5. Right to trial by jury
Mercantilism: There is always a winner and a loser in trade, best to be the person with money, exports should always exceed imports
Virginia- tobacco in Chesapeake region, swampy
Pennsylvania- Religious freedom for Quakers, no slavery
Georgia- meant to be a refuge for the English poor, became large slave owning plantation state, rice and indigo
Carolinas: Indigo and Rice
Rhode Island and New Jersey- religious freedom
Massachusetts- formed with original Plymouth colony
Social contract- John Locke, give a little...
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PROJ 410 Midterm Exam11. (TCO 2) An offshoot of business process outsourcing which requires a greater skill or knowledge of the industry or inner workings of a firm is:
2. (TCO 3) How are the procurement responsibilities divided between the project manager and contract administrator?
3. (TCO 4) What is the difference between the Cost-Plus-Percentage-Fee (CPF) contract structure and the Cost-Plus-Fixed-Fee (CPFF) contract structure?
4. (TCO 5) To assess the impact of a contract on both the buyer and seller, an analysis of exposure can be completed. Categories analyzed in this exposure analysis include all of the following except:
5. (TCO 6) Factors that may affect the BPO agreement structure include all of the following except:
6. (TCO 6) Sometimes a seller is selected based solely on lowest price. However, sometimes this is not always the most efficient or effective way of selecting a seller. What are some of the other evaluation criteria that a buyer may use to help select a seller?
7. (TCO 7) Issuing an RFP to only one vendor may be appropriate when:
8. (TCO 7) Explain the purpose of an RFP. What are some common elements of an RFP?
9. (TCO 8) What is an independent estimate and why should a buyer produce an independent estimate before selecting a seller?
10. (TCO 2) Part 1: Explain the various steps of the project procurement process. Part 2: Using the simple decision of...
...PRACTICE – Ch1 through Ch6
Chapter 11. What is the objective of financial reporting?
a. Provide information that is useful to management in making decisions.
b. Provide information that clearly portray nonfinancial transactions.
c. Provide information about the reporting entity that is useful to present and potential equity investors lenders, and other creditors.
d. Provide information that excludes claims to the resources.
2. When making decisions, investors are interested in assessing?
a. the company’s ability to generate net cash inflows.
b. management’s ability to protect and enhance the capital providers’ investments.
c. Both a and b.
d. the company’s ability to generate net income.
3. What is meant by comparability when discussing financial accounting information?
a. Information has predictive or confirmatory value.
b. Information is reasonably free from error.
c. Information that is measured and reported in a similar fashion across companies.
d. Information is timely.
4. The two fundamental qualities that make accounting information useful for decision making are
a. comparability and timeliness.
b. materiality and neutrality.
c. relevance and faithful representation.
d. faithful representation and comparability.
7. Which of the following elements of financial statements is not a component of comprehensive income?
b. Distributions to owners
9. Generally, revenue from sales...
08 August 2014
Exercise 1 - MCQs: Imperfect Competition and Monopolistic Competition (11.2 and 11.3)
1) Which of the following products is best considered a differentiated product?
2) A characteristic common to most imperfectly competitive markets is
A) inelastic market demand curves.
B) a homogeneous product.
C) non-price competition among firms.
D) common pricing among firms.
3) In an imperfectly competitive market, changes in market conditions are often signalled to the
individual firms by a change in the
A) firm's sales.
B) price of the product.
C) government policy.
D) cost conditions.
4) A monopolistically competitive firm and a monopoly are similar because
A) both firms will earn zero profits in the long run.
B) both firms always operate at their point of minimum average total cost.
C) each firm can raise its price without losing all of its sales.
D) both firms must behave strategically toward other firms in the industry.
5) One difference between perfect competition and monopolistic competition is that
A) there are no barriers to entry in monopolistic competition.
B) there are no barriers to exit in monopolistic competition.
C) there is no product differentiation in perfect competition.
D) there is no product differentiation in monopolistic competition.
6) A characteristic of a monopolistically competitive market is that
A) each firm's marginal...
...placement – fictional products that appear in shows that become popular in the real world - is a great example of Hyperreality.
Perceptual Positioning 74
Our perception of a brand comprises both its functional attributes (features, price) and its symbolic attributes (image).
Our evaluation of a product is the result of what it means rather than what it does.
Positioning strategy: a fundamental component of a company’s marketing efforts as it uses elements of the marketing mix to influence the consumer’s interpretation of its meaning in the marketplace relative to its competitors.
Dimensions of perceptual positioning:
CHAPTER SUMMARY 76
1. Perception is a three-stage process that translates raw stimuli into meaning.
Perception is the process by which physical sensations, such as sights, sounds, and smells, are selected, organized, and interpreted. The eventual interpretation of a stimulus allows it to be assigned meaning. A perceptual map is a widely used marketing tool that evaluates the relative standing of competing brands along relevant dimensions.
2. The design of a product is now a key driver of its success or failure.
In recent years, the sensory experiences we receive from products and services have become a high priority when we choose among competing options. Consumers increasingly want to buy things that will give them hedonic value...