The Origin and History of Life on Earth
* The universe began with a cosmic explosion called the Big Bang about 13.7 billion years ago (bya). * Our solar system began about 4.6 bya after one or more local supernova explosions. * The Earth is estimated to be 4.55 billion years old.
* The period between 4.0 and 3.5 billion years ago marked the emergence of life on our planet.
* Section 22.1: Origin of Life on Earth:
* Four Overlapping Stages of the Origin of Life:
* Stage 1: Nucleotides and amino acids were produced prior to the existence of cells. * Stage 2: Nucleotides became polymerized to form RNA and/or DNA, and amino acids become polymerized to form proteins. * Stage 3: Polymers became enclosed in membranes.
* Stage 4: Polymers enclosed in membranes acquired cellular properties. * Stage 1: Organic Molecules Formed Prior to the Existence of Cells: * The conditions on early Earth may have been more conducive to the spontaneous formation of organic molecules. * Organic molecules, and eventually macromolecules, formed spontaneously. * Termed prebiotic (before life) or abiotic (without life) synthesis. * These slowly forming organic molecules accumulated because there was little free oxygen gas, so they were not spontaneously oxidized, and there were as yet no living organisms, so they were also not metabolized. * The slow accumulation of these molecules in the early oceans over a long period of time formed the prebiotic soup. * Reducing Atmosphere Hypothesis: Based on geological data, many scientists in the 1950s proposed that the atmosphere on early earth was rich in water vapor (H2O), hydrogen gas (H2), methane (CH4), and ammonia (NH3). * These components, along with a lack of atmospheric oxygen (O2), produce a reducing atmosphere because methane and ammonia readily give up electrons to other molecules, thereby reducing them. * Such oxidation-reduction reactions, or redox reactions, are required for the formation of complex organic molecules from simple inorganic molecules. * In 1953, Stanley Miller, an American Chemist, was the first scientist to use experimentation to test whether the prebiotic synthesis of organic molecules is possible. * His experimental apparatus was intended to simulate the conditions on early Earth that were postulated in the 1950s. * Extraterrestrial Hypothesis: Many scientists have argued that sufficient organic molecules may have been present in the materials from asteroids and comets that reached the surface of early Earth in the form of meteorites. * Opponents argue that most of this would be destroyed in the intense heating and collision that accompanies the passage of large bodies through the atmosphere and collision with the surface of the Earth. * Deep-Sea Vent Hypothesis: Biologically important molecules may have been formed in the temperature gradient between extremely hot vent water and cold ocean water. * Supported by experiments.
* Complex biological communities are found here that derive energy from chemicals in the vent (not the sun). * Stage 2: Organic Polymers May Have Formed on the Surface of Clay: * Scientists hypothesize that the second stage in the origin of life was a period in which simple organic molecules polymerized to form more complex organic polymers such as DNA, RNA, or proteins. * Because hydrolysis competes with polymerization, many scientists have speculated that he synthesis of polymers did not occur in a watery prebiotic soup, but instead took place on a solid surface (such as clay) or in evaporating tidal pools. * Stage 3: Cell-Like Structures May Have Originated When Polymers Were Enclosed by a Boundary: * The third stage in the origin of living cells is hypothesized to be the...
...Chapter22: The Revolution in Energy and Industry
I. The Industrial Revolution in Britain
A. Eighteenth-Century Origins
1. Social and economic factors influenced England’s takeoff.
a. Colonial markets for manufactured goods contributed.
b. The canal network constructed in Britain after 1770 contributed.
c. Productive English agriculture meant capital available for investment and spending money for ordinary people to purchase industrial goods.
2. A stable government and an effective central bank also fostered industrial growth in England.
B. The First Factories
1. A growing demand for textiles led to the creation of the world’s first large factories.
2. The putting-out system could not keep up with the demand.
C. The Problem of Energy
1. The cotton textile industry could not have continued to grow using existing energy sources.
2. Britain experienced an energy shortage as the wood supply shrank.
D. The Steam Engine Breakthrough
1. Part of the general revolution was the transformation from wood burning to coal burning.
2. Transportation and manufacturing were revolutionized by steam power.
3. The early steam engines of Savery and Newcomen converted coal into energy.
4. James Watt increased the efficiency of the steam engine.
5. Steam power was used in many industries.
E. The Coming of the Railroads
1. Beginning in the 1830s, railroads transformed the economy, society, and culture.
2. Railroads reduced the cost and uncertainty of overland...
...CHAPTER 1 MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING, TYPES AND ETHICS.
1) Managerial Accounting: Firms internal accounting system and designed to support the information needs of managers in order to make decisions. Not bound by GAAP.
a) Managerial accounting has 3 objectives:
i) To provide information for planning organization actions
ii) To provide information for controlling organization actions.
iii) To provide information for making effective decisions.
b) Reports that help mangers that are nonfinancial are: managerial internal reports, corporate sustainability reports, social responsibility reports or citizenship reports.
c) Managerial accounting concentrates on 3 elements: Planning, Controlling and decision making.
i) Planning: formulation of action to achieve particular goal. It requires setting objectives and identifying methods to achieve those goals
ii) Controlling: monitoring the plans and making sure that those plans are being implemented efficiently. Usually achieved by comparing actual performance with expected performance.
iii) Decision making: Choosing among competing alternatives. Goals of managerial accounting are to supply information that facilitates decision making.
2) Financial accounting vs managerial accounting.
a) Financial Accounting: Producing financial information for external users (investor’s creditors, customers, suppliers and government agencies). Financial accounting uses GAAP to stay in check with FASB, IASB and SEC.
...AP US Chapter22
I. Roots of Imperialism
1. Ideological Arguments
* Scholars, authors, politicians and religious leaders provided interlocking ideological arguments for the new imperialism.
* Some used Darwinism which they believed the US should engage in struggle for wealth and power with other nations.
* Others belief in racial inequality.
* To Americans, the industrial progress, military strength, and political development of England and US were proof of an Anglo-Saxon superiority that carried with it a responsibility to extend the blessings of their rule to less able people.
* American missionaries promoted expansionist sentiment where religious groups increased the number of Protestant foreign missions six fold from 1870 to 1900.
* Missionaries pursued a religious transformation that often resembled a cultural conversion where they promote trade, developed business interests, and encouraged westernization through technology and education.
2. Strategic Concerns
* Other expansionists were motivated by strategic concerns.
* The geography of America convinced Americans that the US had to develop new policies to protect and promote its national security and interests.
* Alfred Thayer Mahan emphasized the importance of a strong navy for national greatness in his book, The Influence of Sea Power upon History.
* Mahan proposed that the US build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama to...
...5 essential characteristics of all living cells:
1. Bounded by a lipid rich plasma membrane
2. Contain nucleic acid that encodes at least one complete copy of a genome
a. Originally RNA… these days, exclusively DNA
b. All cells replicate DNA by template directed polymerization into an intermediate form RNA
3. Capable of regulated metabolic activity
a. Through macromolecular catalysis
4. Capable of protein synthesis
a. The machinery of protein synthesis is conserved among all cells (MOSTLY RNA)
b. The mechanism of protein synthesis is also conserved
c. Three domain (archae, bacteria, and eucaryotes) evolutionary model emerged from studies of the sequence of non coding RNA (t-RNA & r-RNA)
5. Capable of autonomous relication
Prokaryotes show the greatest biochemical diversity
Animal cell: Dormant Fibroblast ( know structures of cell)
Actin filaments- cell shape and motility
Microtubules- vesicle delivery and mitosis
Intermediate filament- mechanical stability
Eukaryotes sequester DNA into a nuclear compartment
1. Regulates access to DNA
2. DNA replication
Endomplasmic reticulum (Rough & Smooth)
1. New membrane
2. Membrane proteins
3. Protein surveillance
5. Calcium storage
Golgi complex: Processing and Distribution
2. Protein surveillance packaging and distribution
3. Secretory vesicles
Cytoplasm is a crowded space where most water is bound
Endosomes distribute and recycle material acquired through endocytosis...
...Chapter twenty-two represents a kind of purgatory for the main protagonist, Amir, within the novel. It can be argued that this chapter represents the cyclic nature of the novel, in the repetition of events. Hosseini manipulates Amir into nervous action; seemingly casual movements that delineate the fear, and in some respects the anticipation, that Amir experiences lying in wait for the ‘Talib’, visible within short sentences, for instance in ‘I crossed my legs. Uncrossed them;. In these lines, Amir's inner tension is evident.
Amir’s isolation within the house is emphasised by his self-absorption, the way in which he studies the objects surrounding him. One such object that is described by Hosseini is the coffee table; on which are ‘walnut sized brass balls’, this depiction takes the reader back to the beginning of the novel, where in chapter 2 Hassan and Amir fired ‘mulberries and walnuts’, Hosseini uses symbolism to remind the reader of the friendship Amir once shared with Hassan in the house, which was ripped away by Assef, foreshadowing his return in chapter22. The alliteration of ‘brass balls’ again takes the reader back to Amir’s childhood as Hosseini described Assef’s appearance as ‘stainless-steel, brass knuckles’ creating elements of fear. This fear is still there as Amir has avoided a confrontation as a child and the cause of his guilt, Amir now has the chance to redeem himself, throughout...
...CHAPTER22 EXILE IN DAPITAN(1892-1895)
Rizal lived in dapitan, a remote town in Mindanao which was under the missionary jurisdiction of Jesuits from 1893 to 1896. He practiced medicine, pursued scientific studies, continued his artistic and literary works, widened his knowledge of languages, and established a school for boys, promoted etc.
BEGINNING OF EXILE IN DAPITAN
Rizal did not agree with the conditions given by Father Superior Pastells to Father Obach. He lived in the house of the commandant, Captain Carnicero. Rizal admired Carnicero and wrote a poem, A Don Ricardo Carnicero on August 26, 1892.
WINS IN MANILA LOTTERY
Mail boat Butuan came on September 21, 1892 who brought lottery ticket no. 9736, jointly owned by Captain Carnicero, Dr. Rizal and Francisco Equilior, won P20,000 in the Government-owned Manila Lottery. Rizal was a lottery addict; in Madrid from 1882 to 1885 he invested 3 pesetas every month in lottery tickets. Wenceslao E. Ratana, Rizal’s first Spanish biographer and former enemy stated that ”This was his only vice”.
RIZAL- PASTELLS DEBATE ON RELIGION
This Started with a book sent from Father Pastells to Rizal by Sarda. Rizal revealed his anti-Catholic ideas. Blumentritt saying that he wanted to hit the friars but only those who utilize religion for power. Rizal could not be convinced by Pastell’s argument but they remained good friends. Father Pastell gave Rizal a copy of “Imitation of Christ” and Rizal gave...
...I. Sherman Scorches Georgia
1. Now, in east Tennessee, CONFS drove UNION out from battlefield at CHICKAMAUGA into city of CHATANOOGA and then SIEGED CHATANOOGA
2. Grant won some battles around chatanooga and DROVE THE SOUTH OUT OF EAST TENNS, and so now Georgia was clear to invade!
3. After Grant cleared out Tennessee AND left it wide open for invasion, union General William Tecumseh Sherman was given command to march through Georgia, and he delivered, capturing and burning down Atlanta before completing his famous “march to the sea” at Savannah.
i. His men cut a trail of destruction one-mile wide, waging “total war” by cutting up railroad tracks, burning fields, and destroying everything and BURNIGN ERRYTING even homes in Georgia
ii. he did this bc he wanted to DESTROY SUPPLIES destined for confed army and WEAKEN MORALE of men at front by waging WAR ON DEM HOMES
iii. HIS “SHERMANIZING” the south worked bc confedate DESERTIONS increased!
iv. so he went from Chattanooga to ATLANTA to SAVANNAH (captured it for Lincoln as xmas present) then pushed into SOUTH CAROLINA and burned its capital city Columbia, THEn reached into Raleigh NORTH CAORLINA near end of war
II. The Politics of War
1. Election of 1864 fell RIGHT IN MIDDLE of the war
2. The Congressional Committee on the Conduct of the War was created in 1861 by Lincoln critic SALMON CHASE who was also sec of treasury,...
...CHAPTER22: DESCENT WITH MODIFICATION
Questions in This Course
How did life on earth become the way it is today?
What differences exist among living organisms?
What drives biodiversity?
How are structures related to function?
Life: The Why and the How
Ultimate vs. Proximate questions:
Why are we here?
Why does life exist?
How did we get here?
How did life become what it is today?
Philosophy and religion—Ultimate questions
Science—Proximate questions, few ultimate
Many ways to define
Descent with Modification—modern descendants are different from ancestors
Change in genetic makeup of a populations
Early Ideas About “Evolution”—Aristotle (384 – 322 BCE)
Species are fixed, unchanging
Scala naturae—“ladder” of life, from least to most complex
Matches well with creationism/ intelligent design—living thing were created perfect and match their environment perfectly
1707-1778, Swedish, physician/ botanist
Classify diversity of life to discover God’s plan
Binomial nomenclature—method of naming organisms
Genus and species
Ex. Homo sapiens, Tyrannosaurus rex
Sometimes name tells something about it, sometimes a person
Similar species grouped together no based on relatedness, but “createdness”
Born in Shrewsbury, England 1809
Interested in nature all his life
Father sent him to medical school
Found it boring and horrifying