Evidence of evolution suggests life may change.
Outline the impact on the evolution of plants and animals of: Changes in physical conditions in the environment - Some animals do not survive changes in the environment and become extinct or endangered. Changes in physical conditions such as climate ad exposure to fire has led to changes in flora (Australia drifts north)
Changed in chemical conditions in the environment - pH of environment can be critical to functioning of enzymes and metabolism. Organisms called Acidophiles have evolved to be able to survive acidic environments such as sulfuric pools. Increase in oxygen levels. As a result, aerobic respiration and animal life became possible. Increase in o2 led to ozone. Competition for resources - Occurs between food, shelter and partners. The dingo increased competition for food for the tasmanian tigers. Dingo’s were more efficient, leading to the extinction of the tiger. Global warming - ice caps. Plants are competing for light.
Describe, using specific examples, how the theory of evolution is supported by the following areas of study: Paleontology - Fossils provide a record over time of how living things have evolved. Fossils that are considered transitional fossils are those that have feature that make them an immediate form between organisms. Provide more evidence for change. Eg: Seen ferns have both features of ferns and gymnosperms. Biogeography - Zones such as the arctic zone. Specific environmental factors. Patterns provide evidence of originated ancestors. Comparative embryology - Embryo’s have different species but are similar. Vertebrate embryo’s have gill arches, notochords, spinal cord and primitive kidneys. Same skin. Comparative anatomy - Different species have same basic structure. Eg: Limbs of mammals.
Explain how Darwin/Wallace’s theory of evolution by natural selection and isolation accounts for divergent evolution and convergent evolution: Natural selection states that those...
Evolution is the process of change that occurs in living organisms over many generations. It is the result of natural selection by the environment of favourable variations in the organisms.
Changes in the environment of living organisms can lead to the evolution of plant and animal species. These environmental changes in condition may be
physical- temperature, rainfall, sea level and landforms e.g. Peppered Moths
chemical- water salinity, acidity, use of pesticides, oxygen levels e.g. DDT mosquitoes
competition for resources - food, water, shelter and mates e.g. dinosaurs and mammals
Evidence for evolution
Palaeontology- study of fossils
Fossil record of organisms illustrates a clear change from simple to very complex organisms. They provides evidence that living organisms have changed over time.
E.g. early horses were much smaller.
Transitional forms are organisms that indicate the development of one group of organisms from another or from a common ancestor. Helps understand how evolutionary change has occurred.
E.g. Archaeopteryx was a flying dinosaur with both reptile teeth, claws and bird feathers
Biogeography- study of the distribution of living things
Particular types of plants and animals are found in certain continents and not others. By looking at the pattern of distribution of an organism today, plus its fossil distribution in the past, we are can reconstruct evolutionary history.
E.g. emus are...
...which is shared by Jesus. Other ways of appreciating the importance of the death of Jesus include seeing the death of Jesus as evidence of the unconditional love of God, or seeing Jesus' selflessness even unto death as a model for discipleship. The fundamental Christian belief in the resurrection of the body, as evident in the Nicene Creed is based on the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Whilst Jesus' resurrection and ascension are depicted slightly differently in the Gospels of John and Luke, both stress the importance of the resurrection as carrying the meaning of eternal life that overcomes the limitations of human mortality. Theologians have long debated the nature of the risen Jesus. The difficulty is reconciling the physical resurrection with the spiritual resurrection, without downplaying either aspect
Examine the Christian understanding of Revelation
God is intimately involved with all aspects of human life and thus God is revealed to humankind in and through the experiences of human history. The revelation is understood to be an ongoing process. God is the only source of revelation. God's revelation takes place through a number of vehicles. One vehicle is God's Spirit that dwells within human beings which enlivens the faith of Christians by bringing to them a knowledge of God. The revelation is also communicated through the Bible, which Christians believe is inspired by God. Similarly, the teaching tradition of the Church is believed to...
...The DNA molecule is often referred to as “The Blueprint of life”. Discuss.
Why is DNA called “blueprint”
Features of the genetic code
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a vital component of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. A blueprint is a detailed drawing or map which identifies and directs the construction and development of a building or an object. DNA is the hereditary material in almost all organisms. Nearly every cell in an organism’s body has the same DNA. DNA is the blueprint that guides the construction and development of living organisms. Some viruses have RNA as their genetic code.
DNA is a polymer, made up of many monomers called nucleotides which link together by condensation reactions. A nucleotide is composed of a pentose sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. Nucleotides link together by a phosphodiester bond.
Four types of bases occur in DNA. Two of the bases are purines - adenine and guanine. The pyrimidines are thymine and cytosine. The pyrimidines are single ringed and the purines are double ringed.
DNA is composed of two antiparallel strands which are wound round each other in a right handed manner to form a double helix. In each strand the sugar and phosphate alternate to form a backbone and the...
The Turning Point of My Life
I was in my final year at Rodeo High School. I was only seventeen and the pressure of knowing the outcome of post high school results would determine my whole life ahead finally got to me. I snapped out of my bewilderment one day, in the absence of my parents while they were out on vacation, I went out with my friends, hoping to find myself spiritually and mentally. This was the turning point in mylife that would ultimately lead to my destiny.
With an incomplete education on hand, I was socially labeling myself as a lost soul, unaware of what to do or where to go. Don’t get me wrong, my mom of course being the only parent in our family of two, myself being the youngest has guided me throughout my journey from birth to this point that am at now, age 21. I ran into a group of people who claimed they could assist me out of this dark web I was tangled in including some who were friends and social groups. They introduced me to drugs, dosed in the marijuana life was tumbling downhill like a snowball, only gathering wrong as it rolled. It was those times where I was not even aware of what I was doing until I went home to get some sleep and then craved more of the drugs I had
already once ingested. I was a rouge teenager who lived by my wits in corrupt society were the act of submitting myself to these low standards is...
...Eleanor Roosevelt once said, “The purpose of life is to live it, to taste experience to the utmost, to reach out eagerly and without fear for newer and richer experience.” If we waste our life worrying about and stressing over pointless things we have no control over, we miss out on the enjoyable part of life. We were put on this earth to live life to its greatest potential, therefore we must not waste a second of it.
The line “You only live once, that’s the motto, YOLO” was sung by famous rapper, Drake. He was implying that you should do everything you want in life and live without any regrets. If you live with regret, you will not be happy. You only have one chance to live, one shot at life, so do it the right way.
In life you are given chances to achieve dreams, and reach goals. My biggest dream is to become an astronaut, but that dream was crushed when NASA shut down. So I decided to work towards becoming a radio talk show host. My mom has always told me that I can talk about nothing for hours and that I have a loud voice. I also want to get married to Mike Moustakas, the third baseman for the Royals. Then I will become rich and finally purchase the pony I’ve always dreamed of owning.
Another point of life is to make a lot of money and spend it all. They say money doesn’t buy you happiness but what they do not tell you is that it can...
...BIOLOGY HSC NOTES
MAINTAINING A BALANCE
• Identify the role of enzymes in metabolism, describe their chemical composition and use a simple model to describe their specificity on substrates.
Enzymes are protein molecules that allow the body to engage in chemical reactions, such as metabolism.
There activities can be catalytic (being able to control the rate of either increasing/decreasing chemical reaction)
Enzymes have a specific shape, and this shape must be intact, otherwise the effectiveness of their function will decrease.
The shape may deform due to PH or temperature levels, the metabolic processes can be modified in three main ways by controlling the: Amount of enzymes, Catalytic activity of enzymes and accessibility of substance Metabolism is the total of all chemical reactions in the cell.
Three factors that affect enzymes: PH, Substance Concentration and temperature.
The substrate is the molecule on which an enzyme acts upon (food), this substrate/reactant fits onto the groove of the active site (the site where the enzymes break down the substance into products). That is why the shape is so important; the active sites shape must remain un-altered if the enzyme is to function correctly.
This fit is known as the “induced fit”, much like a key fits a lock.
When the active site breaks down the substance into products, this is known as the catalysis process.
• Identify the pH as a way of describing the acidity of a substance
PH (Parts per...
...Belonging – basic human need
Experienced through external forces (relationships, place, groups & communities)
Can further be shaped by individual perceptions (values & beliefs)
Some societies enforce strict rules for citizens to live by
Crucible by Arthur Miller – set in 1692 with a theocratic government (church head of state)
Danforth (state judge) – represents town law:
Shows rigidity towards law when speaking to Francis – “a person is either with this court or he is to be counted against it.”
Shows his power when he says “Near to 400 are in jail and 72 to hang by that upon my signature.”
Very dangerous for citizens to ignore rules so they resort to conformity
Individuals who reject the external expectations are disempowered
John Proctor (protagonist):
Questions the external values & perceptions because of self-identity
Values his marriage higher – but was broken because of an attempted affair with Abigail (a girl who accused Proctor’s wife of witchcraft)
Abigail reattempts to seduce Proctor, he replies “I will cut off my hand before I ever reach for you again.”
Tries to rekindle relationship with wife – “On Sunday let you come with me and we’ll walk the farm together.”
Miller’s play is based on true historical events – often recognized as analogy of anti-communist hysteria and witch hunts lead by Senator McCarthy in the 1950’s.
Award winning picture book “The Island” by Armin Greder
Has a fable quality
About an outsider washed up on an...
...Successful People's Points of View in Life
Successful people need to change even when things are going well.
I. Factors in achieving success
II. Important characteristics of successful people
A. Pointing out our mistakes
B. Keeping minds open and receptive to new ideas
1. Hungry for knowledge
2. Think for self-improvement
C. Seeing everyone we meet as a potential teacher we can learn from
1. Being a good listener
2. Being a good follower
III. Reasons of people's failure
A. Extrinsic factors
1. High expectations from families
2. Reactions of praise or blame
3. Rewards or punishments
B. Intrinsic factors
1. Own expectations
2. Level of desire to succeed
3. Sense of whether or not we are challenged in a meaning way
IV. Four beliefs of successful people
A. "I choose to succeed"
B. "I can succeed"
C. "I will succeed"
D. "I have succeeded"
Successful People's Points of View in Life
Everyone wants to succeed, but few people take time to study success. Similarly, everyone dislikes failure, but few people invest the time and energy necessary to learn from their mistakes. Often we are too busy basking in the glory of our triumphs to think through what we did right, or the pain of failure is sufficiently intense that many of us want to move on and put it behind us as soon as we can. Yet those who want to...