...Historical Background Of Arabic Language:
Arabic language, with its rich heritage is considered to be one of the oldest languages in the world with a wealth of knowledge that archeologists to this day are still trying to uncover. Since the middle Ages, Arabic has enjoyed a universality that makes it one of the greatest languages in the world, along with Greek and Latin. This status shows not only the number of speakers, but also the place that the language has held in history, and the significant role that it has played, and is still playing in the development of Arab-Muslim Society .In addition to that Arabic has not simply remained helpful to Islam, but also has been an important medium of cultural and national revival in the Arabic-Speaking countries.
Arabic, the language that was spoken by Allah and Muhammad, has roots going back as far as the Sixth Century, clearly founded in a Semitic predecessor. Specifically, Arabic belongs to the Semitic group of languages which include Akkadian (Babylonian and Assyrian), Ugaritic, Hebrew, Phoenician, Aramaic, Syriac, Ethiopic, South Arabic and many Arabic dialects, and is a member of the Semitic subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic group of languages .The common ancestor for all Semitic languages in the Afro-Asiatic group of languages is called Proto-Semitic .From the earliest times down to the...
...A more complex ligature that combines as many as seven distinct components is commonly used to represent the word Allāh.
The only ligature within the primary range of Arabic script in Unicode (U+06xx) is lām + alif. This is the only one compulsory for fonts and word-processing. Other ranges are for compatibility to older standards and contain other ligatures, which are optional.
lām + alif
Note: Unicode also has in its Presentation Form B FExx range a code for this ligature. If your browser and font are configured correctly for Arabic, the ligature displayed above should be identical to this one, U+FEFB ARABIC LIGATURE LAM WITH ALEF ISOLATED FORM:
U+0640 ARABIC TATWEEL + lām + alif
Note: Unicode also has in its Presentation Form B U+FExx range a code for this ligature. If your browser and font are configured correctly for Arabic, the ligature displayed above should be identical to this one:
U+FEFC ARABIC LIGATURE LAM WITH ALEF FINAL FORM
Another ligature in the Unicode Presentation Form A range U+FB50 to U+FDxx is the special code for glyph for the ligature Allāh (“God”), U+FDF2 ARABIC LIGATURE ALLAH ISOLATED FORM:
This is a work-around for the shortcomings of most text processors, which are incapable of displaying the correct vowel marks for the word Allāh in Koran. Because Arabic script is used to write other texts rather than...
In October 2007, the launch of the first Arabic Blackberry was announced in the United Arab Emirates. The device had Arabic language input and an Arabic interface. Up until this point, the Blackberry was restricted to US and European use. The new initiative to bring the Blackberry to the Middle East and Africa had begun.
The UAE’s mobile phone provider telco Etisalat collaborated with the creators of the Blackberry, RIM (Research InMotion), to create the Arabic version of the e-mail smart phone. The device allows Arabic customers to compose Arabic e-mails, browse Arabic web sites, and input Arabic text into the PIM (personal information management) software applications. The device is fully integrated with IBM Lotus Domino, Microsoft Exchange, and Novell GroupWise servers.
The Blackberry has brought about the buzz word “push e-mail” into the business world. The concept is actually very simple. It works on the principle that rather than pulling e-mails at intervals on a mobile handset, the technology actually allows the e-mails to be pushed. In other words, each and every e-mail is delivered instantaneously and individually to handsets.
In the Middle East, the move towards a mobile workforce is gathering pace. Many businesses in the region want and need the flexibility of having their employees out in the field with the capacity of...
...The Arabic language is the official language of over two - hundred million speakers world - wide. It is spoken throughout the Middle East and Northern Africa. It is also spoken in many Muslim countries due to its religious affiliation with Islam. It is classified as an Afro-Asiatic or Central Semitic language, which has twenty-seven regional specific varieties. For the purpose of my essay, I have chosen to analyze the Classical form. The purpose of this essay is to examine some examples of the verbal morphology of Arabic and to discuss the inflectional and derivational processes involved.
The verbal system of Arabic can be more easily predicted than it’s noun system. It has two main verbal forms: the perfect and imperfect. The perfect tense accounts for completed actions of the past and the imperfect includes any incomplete actions of the present or future. Affixes to the verb indicate person, gender, and number. In both the perfect and imperfect, these aspects are represented by suffixes, with the exception of the use of prefixes representing person in the imperfect tense. The following table clearly illustrates this:
Table 1. Person, Number, and Gender Affixes of the Verb
masc. sing. /-a/ /ya/u-/
fem. sing. /-at/ /ta/u-/
masc. pl. /-u/ /ya/u- -u-/
fem. pl. /-na/ /ya/u- -na/
masc. dual /-a/ /ya/u- -a-/
fem. dual /-ata/ /ta/u-...
Differences in MENA and The Arab World
1. Persian/Farcee is written in Arabic script. Urdu.
2. Muslim does not mean Arab.
Only 20% of 1.8 billion Muslim are Arab. Indonesia has more Muslims than the rest of the world.
10% of Arabs are Christian.
Kurds are Muslims that do not speak Arabic. They want their language to be official. Amazigh became official in 2011.
Some Christians support Arabic language.
335 million people in the Arab World. 5% of world pop.
Arabic is present in non-speaking countries. It is in other languages as words and the script.
Africans speak Arabic for trade purposes.
Turkey switched from Arabic to Latin script in 1929.
300 million people speak Arabic.
Arabic is the language of the Quran.
English words from Arabic
* Admiral, alchemy, alcohol, algebra, algorithm, almanac, arsenal, lemon, lute, sugar, cotton
Languages influenced by Arabic
* Berber, kurdish, persian, spanish, portuguese, catalan, swahili(East Africa), urdu, hindi, hausa(West Africa), punjabi, turkish, malay
Arabic is a Semitic Language (SL are spoken in the Middle East, North Africa and the Horn of Africa.)
One of the oldest languages.
Unique characteristics (phonology, morphology, syntax)
Arabic Script: 28...
...metaphors (common in the Arabic
language), use formulaic expressions, & cluster compliments on
appearance & personality traits. Americans compliment more
frequently than Egyptians, & tend to compliment skills & work.
Both prefer direct rather than indirect complimenting. 2 Tables, 3
Figures, 23 References. Adapted from the source document
Directness vs. Indirectness: Egyptian Arabic and US English
Nelson, Gayle L; Al Batal, Mahmoud; El Bakary, Waguida
International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2002, 26, 1,
This study investigated the similarities & differences between
Egyptian Arabic & US English communication style by focusing on
the speech act of making refusals. A modified version of the
12-item discourse completion test (DCT) was used to elicit data.
The DCT consisted of three requests, three invitations, three
offers, & three suggestions. Each situation type included one
refusal to a person of higher status, one to a person of equal
status, & one to a person of lower status. To more closely
simulate real-life communication & because Arabic is a diglossic
language, an interviewer read the situation aloud & the
participants responded verbally on audiotape - Egyptians in Arabic
& Americans in English....
Arabic Blackberry:Adapting to the language of the market
The UAE's mobile phone provider telco Etisalat collaborated with the creators of the Blackberry,RIM,to create the Arabic version of the e-mail smart phone. The Blackberry has brought about the buzz word"push e-mail" into the business world. In other words,each and every e-mail is delivered instantaneously and individually to handsets.
The adoption of push e-mail is the first step in improving the mobility and communications between business and within business in the Middle East. Ultimately, it is hoped that this will open the door to other services and applications that will allow users to experience the advantages of an office environment no matter where they may be.
There is great competition between the handset sellers to become the leading device that achieves the dominant market share in the Middle East.Some of the manufacturers provide the reseller with a valuable, ongoing income stream. Resellers need some skills, such as basic networking, networking integration, messaging, and some element of expertise in security.But some of the other manufacturers believe that push e-mail is very straightfoward and can be easily understood by the end user, so there is no need to involve resellers and make the application seem more complex than it is.They feel that this will only inhibit the adoption of the...
...characterize diglossia. They are as follows:
1. Function: H is the formal language that is used in specific types of situations and writings, such as in formal lectures, newspapers, political speeches..etc. while L is used for daily conversations including calls, messages ..etc. When Ferguson defined diglossia, the functions of the High and Low varieties of the four languages which were in diglossic situation (namely, Standard German/Swiss German, Standard Arabic / Vernacular Arabic, Standard French/Creole in Haiti, and Katharevousa/ Dhimotiki in Greece) were complementary. Speakers use either H or L according to situation and formality.
2. Prestige: The speakers of the language concerned regard H as superior to L in a number of respects, e.g. H is considered more educated, more sophisticated, more logical, better able to express important thoughts. For example, in Arab countries, the superiority of H is connected with religion; that is, the language of the Holy Qur'an and Hadeeth is Standard Arabic which is the high variety of Arabic language. However, some speakers of the L variety, for example educated Arabs, often deny that they even use it, even though L is widely used in everyday conversations (Fasold 1993). Another example is Katharevousa which enjoyed a very high prestige because of historical considerations since it was the language of the Greek civilization.
3. Literary heritage: All the literature...