After reading, studying, and discussing the chapter, students should be able to:
Learning Outcome 3.1.1: Describe the difference between international and internal migration. Migration can be international (between countries, either voluntary or forced) or internal (within a country, either interregional or intraregional).
Learning Outcome 3.1.2: Identify the principle sources of immigrants during the three main eras of U.S. immigration. The United States has had three main eras of immigration The principal source of immigrants has shifted from Europe during the first two eras to Latina America and Asia during the third (current) era.
Learning Outcome 3.2.1: Describe the history of interregional migration in the United States. Migration within the United States has primarily occurred from east to west, though at varying rates. Recently, interregional migration has also occurred from north to south.
Learning Outcome 3.2.2: Describe interregional migration in Russia and Canada. The world’s largest country has a distinctive pattern of interregional migration, a legacy of the era of Communist rule.
Learning Outcome 3.2.3: Describe interregional migration in China and Brazil. Canada, China, and Brazil also have unequal population distributions. Canadians have been migrating from east to west, Chinese have been migrating from the rural interior to the large coastal cities, and Brazilians from the large coastal cities to the interior.
Learning Outcome 3.2.4: Explain differences among the three forms of intraregional migration. Three intraregional migration patterns are from rural to urban areas, and from urban to rural areas.
Learning Outcome 3.3.1: Provide examples of political, environmental, and economic push and pull factors. People migrate because of a combination of push and pull factors. These factors may be political, environmental and economic. Most people migrate for economic push and pull reasons.
Learning Outcome 3.3.2: Summarize the flows of migrant workers in Europe and Asia. People migrate for temporary work, especially from developing countries to developed countries, where they take jobs that are not desired by local residents.
Learning Outcome 3.4.1: Identify the types of immigrants who are given preference to enter the United States. Immigration is tightly controlled by most countries. The United States gives preference to immigrants with family members already in the country and to those who have special job skills.
Learning Outcome 3.4.2: Describe the population characteristics of unauthorized immigrants to the United States. The United States has more than 11 million unauthorized immigrants, who are in the country without proper documents. Most have emigrated from Mexico. Learning Outcome 3.4.3: Describe characteristics of immigrants to the United States. In the past, most immigrants were males, but now an increasing share of immigrants to the United States are women and children.
Learning Outcome 3.4.4: Compare American and European attitudes towards immigrants. Americans and Europeans have divided and ambivalent attitudes toward the large number of immigrants, especially those arriving without proper documentation.
Introduction. Migration captures the interest of geographers because it is so fundamentally geographic: The act of migrating affects both the place of origin and the migrant’s destination. Geographers are interested in how and why people migrate.
Key Issue 1: Where Are Migrants Distributed?
Nineteenth-century geographer E.G. Ravenstein’s “laws” are the basis for contemporary geographic migration study. The “laws” are organized into three groups that help us understand where and why migration occurs. These “laws” are mentioned throughout the chapter.
Geographer Wilbur Zelinksy identified a migration transition, which consists of changes in a society...
1. Briefly describe today's immigrants in terms of numbers, main source areas, and skills/education.
37.9 million in 2007
2. Identify and rank the five countries sending the largest numbers of immigrants to the United States Include numbers for the latest year available.
1. Mexico (166,271)
2. India (64,857)
3. China (60,720)
4. Philippines (53,171)
5. Vietnam (39,915)
3. What is the net economic impact on the United States of immigrant taxes and welfare benefits?
$20,600 benefit compared to the average yearly income of $11,307 per family.
4. Briefly outline the main points of the Immigration Act of 1990 (IMMACT 90). What is the basic foundation of this act?
It increased the number of legal immigrants allowed into the United States each year. It also created a lottery program that randomly assigned a number of visas.
5. What is meant by "preference levels" for immigration to the United States? Identify the preference levels. Do you believe such preferences are justified? Support your opinion.
Family based immigrants are admitted to the U.S. either as immediate relatives of U.S. citizens or through the family preference system. There is no cap on the number of visas available each year for immediate relatives. There are a limited number of visas available every year under the family preference system. I think the system is justified and correct. It works nice and smoothly.
6. What were the basic reasons for the record-breaking immigration in 1990...
Immigration is the movement of people into a different country in order to settle there. Immigration is made for many reasons, including temperature, breeding, economic, political, family re-unification, natural disaster, poverty or the wish to change one's surroundings. Immigration has been a serious topic. One theory of immigration distinguishes between Push and Pull. Push factors refer primarily the motive for immigration from the country of origin. In the case of economic migration usually labor migration, differences in wage rates are usual. If the value of wages in the new country surpasses the value of wages in one’s native country, he or she may choose to migrate as long as the costs are not too high. For some migrants, education is the primary pull fact.
Retirement migration from rich countries to lower-cost countries with better climate is a new type of international migration. Examples include immigration of retired British citizens to Spain or Italy and of retired Canadian citizens to the U.S. Non-economic push factors include persecution mostly religious reasons, frequent abuse, bullying, oppression, ethnic cleansing and even genocide, and risks to civilians during war. Political motives traditionally motivate refugee flows to escape dictatorship for instance.
Another serious reason for immigration is War; a lot of people from Europe during both world wars came to America for refuge. It’s pretty normal...
3. Most long distance migrants are male
4. Most long distance migrants are adult individuals rather than families with Children.
5. Most migrants relocate a short distance and remain within the same country.
6. Long-distance migrants to other countries head for major centers of economic activity.
i) Ravenstein Claimed that migrants have typical characteristics:
* Most long distance migrants are male.
* Most long distance migrants are adults rather than families with children.
3. Where do People Migrate?
j) Global Migration Flows-
* Occurred haphazardly, typically in pursuit of spices, fame, or exploration.
* The past five centuries have witnessed human migration on an unprecedented scale, much of it generated by European colonization.
k) From southern Europe to South and North America
l) From Britain and Ireland to Africa and Australia
m) From Africa to the America during the period of slavery
n) From India to eastern Africa, Southeast Asia, and Caribbean America.
* Undocumented immigrants- individuals who enter the U.S. without proper documents.
k) Regional Migration Flows:
* The stories of huge flows of migrants were unprecedented and meet dew rivals in terms of sheer number today.
o) Regional Scale- with migrants going to a neighboring country to take advantage of short-...
Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intention of settling temporarily or permanently in the new location. The movement is typically over long distances and from one country to another, but internal migration is also possible. Migration may be individuals, family units or in large groups.
Immigration is the movement of people into a country to which they are not native in order to settle there, especially as permanent residents or future citizens. Immigrants are motivated to leave their native countries for a variety of reasons, including a lack of local access to resources, a desire for economic prosperity, family re-unification, escape from prejudice, conflict or natural disaster, or simply the wish to change one's surroundings.
1. Build background about human migration and types of migration.
Explain to students that human migration is the movement of people from one place in the world to another. Ask: What are some different types of human movements? Then tell students that people move for many reasons, and that types of human migration include:
•internal migration: moving within a state, country, or continent
•external migration: moving to a different state, country, or continent
•emigration: leaving one country to move to another
•immigration: moving into a new country
•return migration: moving back to where you came from...
...Chapter 1 Outline
Intro to Human Geography
Field Note: Humans are geographers by nature. They can think territorially or spatially and have an awareness of, and curiosity about the distinctive nature of places. Even children possess qualities of geographers, creating carefully mapped realms in tiny places. Places possess an emotional quality, and we all must belong somewhere. Humans' insatiable curiosity and the place-centered element within us gave birth to geography as an academic discipline. Conquest and commerce generated a need to know about the world and pragmatism was added long ago by traders and explorers. Geography literally means "to describe the Earth," and the practical aspects of geography first arose among the Greeks, Romans, Mesopotamians, and Phoenicians.
I. What is Human Geography?
A. Human Geography: How people make places, how we organize space and society, and how we interact with each other across space
B. Globalization: Worldwide integration and development
II.What Are Geographic Questions?
A.Physical Geography: The branch of geography concerned with natural features and phenomena of the earth's surface, as landforms, drainage features,climates, soils, and vegetation.
B.Spatial: Existing or occurring in space
C.Spatial Distribution: The arrangement of a phenomenon across space
D.Pattern: What relationship exist between different places and things
...rate of the human species is exceeding the rate and which we can make food to feed it. The green revolution was the worlds introduction to modern agricultural and a time of vast improvements in the worlds fight in hunger. New technologies such as hi yield variety seeds Chemical fertilizer and agricultural machinery lid this revolution and are still a big part of the way we produce food for the world we live in today. The green revolution saved A lot of small developing countries throughout the world. Food is now a mass produced all around the world in fields and distributed to countries in need as well as countries who's people are willing to pay for foreign and exotic foods. The green revolution has one enemy, The reproductive rate of the human species is exceeding the rate and which we can make food to feed it. The green revolution was the worlds introduction to modern agricultural and a time of vast improvements in the worlds fight in hunger. New technologies such as hi yield variety seeds Chemical fertilizer and agricultural machinery lid this revolution and are still a big part of the way we produce food for the world we live in today. The green revolution saved A lot of small developing countries throughout the world. Food is now a mass produced all around the world in fields and distributed to countries in need as well as countries who's people are willing to pay for foreign and exotic foods. The green revolution has one enemy, The...
An Analysis of Human Migration
Ever since humans learnt to grow crops as a steady source of food humans have migrated in search of conditions better suited to their needs and comforts. Although all of us but the 30-40 million that choose to live the nomadic life have abandoned that lifestyle and moved on to a more ‘civilized’ modern era, migration still remains an option for those of us seeking to take residence in an alternate region of mother earth. The National Geographic Society  defines human migration as ‘The movement of people from one place in the world to another for the purpose of taking up permanent or semipermanent residence, usually across a political boundary.’ Migration inside a landmass or political region is called internet migration and outside a physical or political border is called external migration. For example inside moving inside the continent of Australia would be internal migration but moving into a different continent overseas would be external migration. There are a variety of causes for migration, but they haven’t changed much through the years and remain fairly similar to the reasons our ancestors chose to migrate. These reasons can be categorized into two sections; these being push factors and pull factors. Push factors are reasons for leaving a region because of negative properties of the...
i. Temperament- a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
ii. Personality of children is inborn, and is not based on way they are raised
iii. Intense children at young ages tend to be intense at older ages
i. Heritability- the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied
ii. Intelligence and athletic ability are two things that are hereditably passed down
iii. This has lead to designer babies
iv. Group Differences
1. Groups can not be defined by characteristics
2. Not all African Americans are good at sports
v. Nature Enables Nurture
1. Humans have an enormous adaptive capacity
2. Difference in human behavior is caused by the environment
f. Gene-Environment Interaction
i. Interaction- the dependence of the effect of one factor (such as environment) on another factor (such as heredity)
ii. Both genes and environment are essential to a person’s development
iii. Outgoing people thrive off of energy and therefore become more outgoing
g. The New Frontier: Molecular Genetics:
i. Molecular Genetics- the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
ii. Molecular geneticists are looking for genes that create disorders and people and are looking to remove them
iii. Blueprints for designer babies now exist
iv. Parents can be tested for...